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      Predominance of Isolated Systolic Hypertension Among Middle-Aged and Elderly US Hypertensives : Analysis Based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III

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          Abstract

          The purpose of the present study was to examine patterns of systolic and diastolic hypertension by age in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III and to determine when treatment and control efforts should be recommended. Percentage distribution of 3 blood pressure subtypes (isolated systolic hypertension, combined systolic/diastolic hypertension, and isolated diastolic hypertension) was categorized for uncontrolled hypertension (untreated and inadequately treated) in 2 age groups (ages <50 and >/=50 years). Overall, isolated systolic hypertension was the most frequent subtype of uncontrolled hypertension (65%). Most subjects with hypertension (74%) were >/=50 years of age, and of this untreated older group, nearly all (94%) were accurately staged by systolic blood pressure alone, in contrast to subjects in the untreated younger group, who were best staged by diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, most subjects (80%) in the older untreated and the inadequately treated groups had isolated systolic hypertension and required a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure than in the younger groups (-13.3 and -16.5 mm Hg versus -6.8 and -6.1 mm Hg, respectively; P:=0.0001) to attain a systolic blood pressure treatment goal of <140 mm Hg. Contrary to previous perceptions, isolated systolic hypertension was the majority subtype of uncontrolled hypertension in subjects of ages 50 to 59 years, comprised 87% frequency for subjects in the sixth decade of life, and required greater reduction in systolic blood pressure in these subjects to reach treatment goal compared with subjects in the younger group. Better awareness of this middle-aged and older high-risk group and more aggressive antihypertensive therapy are necessary to address this treatment gap.

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          Most cited references11

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          Inadequate management of blood pressure in a hypertensive population.

          Many patients with hypertension have inadequate control of their blood pressure. Improving the treatment of hypertension requires an understanding of the ways in which physicians manage this condition and a means of assessing the efficacy of this care. We examined the care of 800 hypertensive men at five Department of Veterans Affairs sites in New England over a two-year period. Their mean (+/-SD) age was 65.5+/-9.1 years, and the average duration of hypertension was 12.6+/-5.3 years. We used recursive partitioning to assess the probability that antihypertensive therapy would be increased at a given clinic visit using several variables. We then used these predictions to define the intensity of treatment for each patient during the study period, and we examined the associations between the intensity of treatment and the degree of control of blood pressure. Approximately 40 percent of the patients had a blood pressure of > or =160/90 mm Hg despite an average of more than six hypertension-related visits per year. Increases in therapy occurred during 6.7 percent of visits. Characteristics associated with an increase in antihypertensive therapy included increased levels of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at that visit (but not previous visits), a previous change in therapy, the presence of coronary artery disease, and a scheduled visit. Patients who had more intensive therapy had significantly (P<0.01) better control of blood pressure. During the two-year period, systolic blood pressure declined by 6.3 mm Hg among patients with the most intensive treatment, but increased by 4.8 mm Hg among the patients with the least intensive treatment. In a selected population of older men, blood pressure was poorly controlled in many. Those who received more intensive medical therapy had better control. Many physicians are not aggressive enough in their approach to hypertension.
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            Blood Pressure as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

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              Systolic versus diastolic blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                March 2001
                March 2001
                : 37
                : 3
                : 869-874
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Heart Disease Prevention Program, University of California, Irvine (S.S.F., M.J.J., N.D.W.), and Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, NJ (G.J.L., P.L.).
                Article
                10.1161/01.HYP.37.3.869
                11244010
                282368a0-a510-42bd-99be-cd497aebb4c8
                © 2001
                History

                Molecular medicine,Neurosciences
                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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