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      Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibition Down Modulates the NF-κB and STAT3 Survival Pathways, Enhances the Cellular Proteotoxic Stress and Synergistically Boosts the Cytotoxic Effect of Bortezomib on Multiple Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cells

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          Abstract

          CK2 is a pivotal pro-survival protein kinase in multiple myeloma that may likely impinge on bortezomib-regulated cellular pathways. In the present study, we investigated CK2 expression in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, two bortezomib-responsive B cell tumors, as well as its involvement in bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity and signaling cascades potentially mediating bortezomib resistance. In both tumors, CK2 expression correlated with that of its activated targets NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors. Bortezomib-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis were significantly amplified by the simultaneous inhibition of CK2 with two inhibitors (CX-4945 and K27) in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cell lines, in a model of multiple myeloma bone marrow microenvironment and in cells isolated from patients. CK2 inhibition empowered bortezomib-triggered mitochondrial-dependent cell death. Phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 on Ser529 (a CK2 target site) and rise of the levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1α were markedly reduced upon CK2 inhibition, as were STAT3 phospho Ser727 levels. On the contrary, CK2 inhibition increased phospho Ser51 eIF2α levels and enhanced the bortezomib-dependent accumulation of poly-ubiquitylated proteins and of the proteotoxic stress-associated chaperone Hsp70. Our data suggest that CK2 over expression in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cells might sustain survival signaling cascades and can antagonize bortezomib-induced apoptosis at different levels. CK2 inhibitors could be useful in bortezomib-based combination therapies.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells.

          Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express high levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Blocking IL-6 receptor signaling from Janus kinases to the Stat3 protein inhibits Bcl-xL expression and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that Stat3 signaling is essential for the survival of myeloma tumor cells. These findings provide evidence that constitutively activated Stat3 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma by preventing apoptosis.
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            A new prognostic index (MIPI) for patients with advanced-stage mantle cell lymphoma.

            There is no generally established prognostic index for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), because the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) have been developed for diffuse large cell and follicular lymphoma patients, respectively. Using data of 455 advanced stage MCL patients treated within 3 clinical trials, we examined the prognostic relevance of IPI and FLIPI and derived a new prognostic index (MCL international prognostic index, MIPI) of overall survival (OS). Statistical methods included Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank test for evaluating IPI and FLIPI and multiple Cox regression for developing the MIPI. IPI and FLIPI showed poor separation of survival curves. According to the MIPI, patients were classified into low risk (44% of patients, median OS not reached), intermediate risk (35%, 51 months), and high risk groups (21%, 29 months), based on the 4 independent prognostic factors: age, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and leukocyte count. Cell proliferation (Ki-67) was exploratively analyzed as an important biologic marker and showed strong additional prognostic relevance. The MIPI is the first prognostic index particularly suited for MCL patients and may serve as an important tool to facilitate risk-adapted treatment decisions in patients with advanced stage MCL.
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              Proteasome inhibitors: an expanding army attacking a unique target.

              Proteasomes are large, multisubunit proteolytic complexes presenting multiple targets for therapeutic intervention. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteolytic core and one or two 19S regulatory particles. The 20S core contains three types of active sites. Many structurally diverse inhibitors of these active sites, both natural product and synthetic, have been discovered in the last two decades. One, bortezomib, is used clinically for treatment of multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and acute allograft rejection. Five more recently developed proteasome inhibitors are in trials for treatment of myeloma and other cancers. Proteasome inhibitors also have activity in animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, reperfusion injury, promote bone and hair growth, and can potentially be used as anti-infectives. In addition, inhibitors of ATPases and deubiquitinases of 19S regulatory particles have been discovered in the last decade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                27 September 2013
                : 8
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Hematology and Clinical Immunology Branch, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                [2 ]Myeloma and Lymphoma Pathobiology Laboratory, Hematologic Malignancies Unit, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, General Pathology and Cytopathology Unit, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: SM FP. Performed the experiments: SM AB EM LQT FZ MP RC FM A. Colpo A. Cabrelle. Analyzed the data: SM FP MP SDM FM FA RZ LT CG GS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SM MP FM GS RZ FA LT CG. Wrote the paper: SM FP.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-16690
                10.1371/journal.pone.0075280
                3785505
                24086494

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Funding
                This study was supported by a grant from the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell' Università e della Ricerca Scientifica (MIUR; www.miur.it) n° RBFR086EW9 (FIRB "Futuro in Ricerca") and from a University of Padova ( www.unipd.it) grant n° CPDA114940/11 "Progetti di Ricerca di Ateneo" to Francesco Piazza and from the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (A.I.R.C., Milan; www.airc.it) to Gianpietro Semenzato. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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