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      Prevalence, sociodemographic variables, mental health condition, and type of drug use associated with suicide behaviors among people with substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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          We assessed the prevalence, sociodemographic variables, mental health condition, and type of drug use associated with suicide behaviors among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Studies in English published from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2020 were searched on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Science to identify studies on variables associated with suicidal behaviors (ideations and attempts) among patients with SUD. After reviewing for study duplicates, the full-text of selected articles were assessed for eligibility using Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes (PICO) criteria: (i) population: patients with SUD; (ii) intervention: suicide behaviors in the past year; (iii) comparator: SUD who had not suicide behaviors; (iv) outcome: suicide ideations or attempts in the last year; and (v) study type: cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies. Out of 10,810 articles, 48 studies met eligibility criteria. Our findings showed a pooled prevalence rate of suicide ideations of 35% (95% CI, 22% 48%) and suicide attempts of 20% (95% CI, 17% 23%) in the last year among patients with SUD. Smoking, previous history of sexual abuse, depression, and alcohol and cannabis use disorders were significantly associated with suicide ideations. Study findings also showed that being female, smoking, history of physical and sexual abuse, depression and alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine use disorders, and polysubstance abuse were significantly associated with suicide attempts among patients with SUD. These findings have implications for developing prevention programs. Appropriate initiatives for reducing the risk of suicide behaviors like systematic assessments of changes in drug use pattern at the emergency departments or at other key health providers may be more broadly implemented. Motivational therapy to improve help-seeking, increased information on adverse consequences of heavy substance use, and crisis plan resolutions to face suicide behaviors could also be consolidated.

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          Author and article information

          J Addict Dis
          Journal of addictive diseases
          Informa UK Limited
          April 27 2021
          : 39
          : 4
          [1 ] Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
          [2 ] Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
          [3 ] Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Psychosocial Health Research Institute, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
          [4 ] Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
          [5 ] Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran.
          [6 ] Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
          [7 ] Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
          [8 ] Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

          smoking,substance use disorders,Suicide ideations or attempts,depression


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