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      Parallel Genetic Architecture of Parallel Adaptive Radiations in Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

      , ,

      Genetics

      Genetics Society of America

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          Abstract

          It is unknown whether homologous loci underlie the independent and parallel wing pattern radiations of Heliconius butterflies. By comparing the locations of color patterning genes on linkage maps we show that three loci that act similarly in the two radiations are in similar positions on homologous chromosomes.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles.

          Major phenotypic changes evolve in parallel in nature by molecular mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we use positional cloning methods to identify the major chromosome locus controlling armor plate patterning in wild threespine sticklebacks. Mapping, sequencing, and transgenic studies show that the Ectodysplasin (EDA) signaling pathway plays a key role in evolutionary change in natural populations and that parallel evolution of stickleback low-plated phenotypes at most freshwater locations around the world has occurred by repeated selection of Eda alleles derived from an ancestral low-plated haplotype that first appeared more than two million years ago. Members of this clade of low-plated alleles are present at low frequencies in marine fish, which suggests that standing genetic variation can provide a molecular basis for rapid, parallel evolution of dramatic phenotypic change in nature.
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            Genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary pelvic reduction in threespine sticklebacks.

            Hindlimb loss has evolved repeatedly in many different animals by means of molecular mechanisms that are still unknown. To determine the number and type of genetic changes underlying pelvic reduction in natural populations, we carried out genetic crosses between threespine stickleback fish with complete or missing pelvic structures. Genome-wide linkage mapping shows that pelvic reduction is controlled by one major and four minor chromosome regions. Pitx1 maps to the major chromosome region controlling most of the variation in pelvic size. Pelvic-reduced fish show the same left-right asymmetry seen in Pitx1 knockout mice, but do not show changes in Pitx1 protein sequence. Instead, pelvic-reduced sticklebacks show site-specific regulatory changes in Pitx1 expression, with reduced or absent expression in pelvic and caudal fin precursors. Regulatory mutations in major developmental control genes may provide a mechanism for generating rapid skeletal changes in natural populations, while preserving the essential roles of these genes in other processes.
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              Rapid morphological radiation and convergence among races of the butterfly Heliconius erato inferred from patterns of mitochondrial DNA evolution.

               A V Brower (1994)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genetics
                Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                0016-6731
                1943-2631
                September 20 2006
                September 2006
                September 2006
                June 18 2006
                : 174
                : 1
                : 535-539
                Article
                10.1534/genetics.106.059527
                1569775
                16783007
                © 2006

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