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      Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide : Addressing heart failure

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          ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure.

            Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers. HF represents a considerable burden to the health-care system, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizations, readmissions, and outpatient visits. HF is not a single entity, but a clinical syndrome that may have different characteristics depending on age, sex, race or ethnicity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status, and HF etiology. Furthermore, pathophysiological differences are observed among patients diagnosed with HF and reduced LVEF compared with HF and preserved LVEF, which are beginning to be better appreciated in epidemiological studies. A number of risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of HF as well as its severity. In this Review, we discuss key features of the epidemiology and risk profile of HF.
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              The global health and economic burden of hospitalizations for heart failure: lessons learned from hospitalized heart failure registries.

              Heart failure is a global pandemic affecting an estimated 26 million people worldwide and resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually in both the United States and Europe. Although the outcomes for ambulatory HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (EF) have improved with the discovery of multiple evidence-based drug and device therapies, hospitalized heart failure (HHF) patients continue to experience unacceptably high post-discharge mortality and readmission rates that have not changed in the last 2 decades. In addition, the proportion of HHF patients classified as having a preserved EF continues to grow and may overtake HF with a reduced EF in the near future. However, the prognosis for HF with a preserved EF is similar and there are currently no available disease-modifying therapies. HHF registries have significantly improved our understanding of this clinical entity and remain an important source of data shaping both public policy and research efforts. The authors review global HHF registries to describe the patient characteristics, management, outcomes and their predictors, quality improvement initiatives, regional differences, and limitations of the available data. Moreover, based on the lessons learned, they also propose a roadmap for the design and conduct of future HHF registries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ESC Heart Failure
                ESC Heart Failure
                Wiley
                20555822
                August 2014
                August 2014
                August 29 2014
                : n/a
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Wrocław Medical University; Wrocław Poland
                [2 ]Charité-University Medical Center; Berlin Germany
                [3 ]King Fahad Cardiac Centre; King Saud University; Riyadh Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]National Heart and Lung Institute; Imperial College London (Royal Brompton Hospital); London UK
                [5 ]Center for Translational Medicine and Cardiology Division; Temple University School of Medicine; Philadelphia PA USA
                [6 ]State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease; Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College; Beijing China
                [7 ]Faculty of Health Sciences; Linköping University; Linköping Sweden
                [8 ]Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine; Monash University; Melbourne Australia
                [9 ]Medical Advanced Heart Failure Program; Fortis Escorts Heart Institute; New Delhi India
                [10 ]Cardiovascular Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre; Medical School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Brazil
                [11 ]Heart Failure Subspecialty; Cardiological Society of India; Kolkata India
                [12 ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine; Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine; Sendai Japan
                [13 ]Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; University of Indonesia, National Cardiovascular Center Harapan Kita; Jakarta Indonesia
                [14 ]Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences; University of Cape Town, Cape Town, and Soweto Cardiovascular Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg South Africa
                [15 ]Heart Failure Unit, Department of Cardiology, Attikon University Hospital; University of Athens; Athens Greece
                Article
                10.1002/2055-5822.12005
                © 2014
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