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      Significados de las fiebres del dengue, chikungunya y zika e itinerarios terapéuticos en un municipio endémico de Colombia Translated title: Meanings of dengue, chikungunya and zika and therapeutic itineraries in a Colombian endemic municipality

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          Abstract

          Resumen Investigación cualitativa para dilucidar construcciones sociales sobre el dengue, chikungunya y zika en un municipio endémico de Colombia. Participaron 61 personas con experiencia subjetiva de enfermedad. Se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas y abiertas, diálogos informales y registro de notas de observación. El análisis se realizó siguiendo el método inductivo de la investigación social. Se evidencian dos maneras de entender el dengue: como una enfermedad “normal” o como una enfermedad grave que puede causar la muerte. El chikungunya y el zika son concebidas como enfermedades nuevas, de difícil reconocimiento, que caen en el olvido social ante la baja ocurrencia de casos. Se identifican dos itinerarios terapéuticos frente a las tres enfermedades, mediados por la gravedad de los síntomas y la percepción de la atención recibida por los servicios sanitarios. Las droguerías se configuran como un elemento clave de los itinerarios terapéuticos. Se concluye que la construcción social de estas enfermedades está atravesada por una tensión entre el reconocimiento y el olvido. Las políticas y acciones públicas tendientes a la prevención y el control de estos eventos tienen el reto de enfrentar el “olvido” que trae la cotidianidad, por tanto no deben limitarse a abordajes que ignoran las maneras en que las enfermedades son vividas y afrontadas.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Qualitative research to elucidate social constructions about dengue, chikungunya and zika in an endemic municipality of Colombia. Sixty-one people with subjective experience of disease participated. Semi-structured and open interviews, informal dialogues and observation notes record were used. The analysis was performed following the inductive method of social research. Two ways of understanding dengue are evident: as a “normal” disease or as a serious disease that can cause death. Chikungunya and zika are conceived as new diseases, difficult to recognize, that fall into social oblivion due to the low occurrence of cases. Two therapeutic itineraries for the three diseases are identified, mediated by the severity of the symptoms and the perception of the attention received by the health services. Drugstores are configured as a key element of therapeutic itineraries. It is concluded that the social construction of these diseases is crossed by a tension between recognition and forgetfulness. Public policies and actions aimed at the prevention and control of these events have the challenge of facing the “forgetfulness” that daily life brings, therefore they should not be limited to approaches that ignore the ways in which diseases are lived and faced.

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          Modelos de atención de los padecimientos: de exclusiones teóricas y articulaciones prácticas

          En las sociedades latinoamericanas existen diversos modelos de atención de los padecimientos que son considerados en forma aislada y hasta antagónica por el sector salud, en lugar de observar las estrechas relaciones que se dan entre esos modelos a través de las prácticas y representaciones de los sujetos que los utilizan. En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que existen entre la biomedicina y la autoatención, para evidenciar el continuo proceso de transacciones que operan entre las mismas. Primero se describen algunas características básicas de la biomedicina y de la autoatención, para luego observar las transacciones que existen entre ambas, especialmente a través de la prescripción de fármacos y de la automedicación. Este proceso transaccional tiende a ser ignorado por la biomedicina, que critica los procesos de automedicación, lo que resulta paradojal dado que la biomedicina y sobre todo el sector salud impulsan procesos de autoatención que incluyen la automedicación, sin reflexionar sobre la articulación y sobre las consecuencias que estas transacciones tienen para el proceso salud/enfermedad/atención. Se propone la necesidad no sólo de reflexionar sobre estos procesos transaccionales, sino de utilizarlos intencionalemnte desde el sector salud.
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            Itinerários terapêuticos: o estado da arte da produção científica no Brasil

            O conhecimento sobre os itinerários de pessoas em busca de atenção à saúde pode contribuir para compreensão sobre o comportamento em relação ao cuidado e utilização de serviços de saúde. Apesar de sua potencialidade, os estudos sobre itinerários terapêuticos não tem expressão conhecida no Brasil. Este artigo busca apresentar um levantamento da produção científica nacional sobre o assunto nos últimos 20 anos, descrevendo e analisando as abordagens realizadas. Os dados foram coletados durante os meses de setembro e novembro de 2008 através do portal da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. A busca resultou em 11 artigos que foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo por meio de categorização. Observou-se que os estudos sobre itinerários terapêuticos no Brasil são recentes e pouco explorados por pesquisadores e gestores. A abordagem socioantropológica oferece suporte teórico à maioria dos estudos realizados. O principal foco de interesse é a percepção do paciente sobre a doença e tratamento. Poucos são os estudos que nessa discussão associam aspectos sobre o acesso e utilização dos serviços e fatores relacionados ao contexto do paciente. Conclui-se que o estudo sobre itinerários terapêuticos pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a qualificação da assistência.
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              Bureaucratic Itineraries in Colombia. A theoretical and methodological tool to assess managed-care health care systems.

              Steady increases in the number of Colombians insured by the health care system contrasts with the hundreds of thousands of legal actions interposed to warrant citizen's right to health. This study aims to analyze the relationships among patients' experiences of denials by the system, the country's legal mechanisms, and the functioning of insurance companies and service providing institutions. We conducted a mixed-methods case study in Bogotá and present a quantitative description of 458 cases, along with semi-structured interviews and an in-depth illness history. We found that Colombians' denials of care most commonly include appointments, laboratory tests or treatments. Either insurance companies or service providing institutions use the system's legal structure to justify the different kinds of denials. To warrant their right to health care, citizens are forced to interpose legal mechanisms, which are largely ruled in favor, but delays result in a progressive and cumulative pattern of harmful consequences, as follows: prolongation of suffering, medical complications of health status, permanent harmful consequences, permanent disability, and death. We diagram the path that Colombians need to follow to have their health care claims attended by the system in a matrix called Bureaucratic Itineraries. Bureaucratic Itineraries is a theoretical and methodological construct that links the personal experience of illness with the system's structure and could be an important tool for understanding, evaluating and comparing different systems' performances. In this case, it allowed us to conclude that managed care in Colombia has created complex bureaucracies that delay and limit care through cost-containment mechanisms, which has resulted in harmful consequences for people's lives.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                sausoc
                Saúde e Sociedade
                Saude soc.
                Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. Associação Paulista de Saúde Pública. (, SP, Brazil )
                0104-1290
                1984-0470
                2020
                : 29
                : 3
                : e190093
                Affiliations
                [1] Bucaramanga Santander orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Programa de Medicina Colombia chormiga@ 123456unab.edu.co
                [2] Bogotá DC orgnameUniversidad del Rosario orgdiv1Escuela de Ciencias Humanas orgdiv2Programa de Antropología Colombia claudiam.cortes@ 123456urosario.edu.co
                Article
                S0104-12902020000300314 S0104-1290(20)02900300314
                10.1590/s0104-12902020190093
                283b528c-2bcf-440b-b65d-7ec08b9e7483

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 07 February 2019
                : 03 March 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Public Health

                Categories
                Artículos Originales

                Dengue: Zika,Dengue,Chikungunya,Narrativas Personales Como Asunto,Antropología Médica,Zika,Personal Narratives as Topic,Medical Anthropology

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