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α2- and β2-Adrenoreceptor-Mediated Efficacy of the Atypical Antidepressant Agomelatine Combined With Gabapentin to Suppress Allodynia in Neuropathic Rats With Ligated Infraorbital or Sciatic Nerve

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      Abstract

      Previous data showed that neuropathic pain induced by mechanical lesion of peripheral nerves has specific characteristics and responds differently to alleviating drugs at cephalic versus extracephalic level. This is especially true for tricyclic antidepressants currently used for alleviating neuropathic pain in humans which are less effective against cephalic neuropathic pain. Whether this also applies to the antidepressant agomelatine, with its unique pharmacological properties as MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT2B/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in two rat models of neuropathic pain. Acute treatments were performed 2 weeks after unilateral chronic constriction (ligation) injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-SN) or the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION), when maximal mechanical allodynia had developed in ipsilateral hindpaw or vibrissal pad, respectively, in Sprague–Dawley male rats. Although agomelatine (45 mg/kg i.p.) alone was inactive, co-treatment with gabapentin, at an essentially ineffective dose (50 mg/kg i.p.) on its own, produced marked anti-allodynic effects, especially in CCI-ION rats. In both CCI-SN and CCI-ION models, suppression of mechanical allodynia by ‘agomelatine + gabapentin’ could be partially mimicked by the combination of 5-HT2C antagonist (SB 242084) + gabapentin, but not by melatonin or 5-HT2B antagonist (RS 127445, LY 266097), alone or combined with gabapentin. In contrast, pretreatment by idazoxan, propranolol or the β2 antagonist ICI 118551 markedly inhibited the anti-allodynic effect of ‘agomelatine + gabapentin’ in both CCI-SN and CCI-ION rats, whereas pretreatment by the MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist S22153 was inactive. Altogether these data indicate that ‘agomelatine + gabapentin’ is a potent anti-allodynic combination at both cephalic and extra-cephalic levels, whose action implicates α2- and β2-adrenoreceptor-mediated noradrenergic neurotransmission.

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      Most cited references 72

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      Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      New drug treatments, clinical trials, and standards of quality for assessment of evidence justify an update of evidence-based recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE), we revised the Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) recommendations for the pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain based on the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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        Descending control of pain.

         Mark J Millan (2002)
        Upon receipt in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord, nociceptive (pain-signalling) information from the viscera, skin and other organs is subject to extensive processing by a diversity of mechanisms, certain of which enhance, and certain of which inhibit, its transfer to higher centres. In this regard, a network of descending pathways projecting from cerebral structures to the DH plays a complex and crucial role. Specific centrifugal pathways either suppress (descending inhibition) or potentiate (descending facilitation) passage of nociceptive messages to the brain. Engagement of descending inhibition by the opioid analgesic, morphine, fulfils an important role in its pain-relieving properties, while induction of analgesia by the adrenergic agonist, clonidine, reflects actions at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-ARs) in the DH normally recruited by descending pathways. However, opioids and adrenergic agents exploit but a tiny fraction of the vast panoply of mechanisms now known to be involved in the induction and/or expression of descending controls. For example, no drug interfering with descending facilitation is currently available for clinical use. The present review focuses on: (1) the organisation of descending pathways and their pathophysiological significance; (2) the role of individual transmitters and specific receptor types in the modulation and expression of mechanisms of descending inhibition and facilitation and (3) the advantages and limitations of established and innovative analgesic strategies which act by manipulation of descending controls. Knowledge of descending pathways has increased exponentially in recent years, so this is an opportune moment to survey their operation and therapeutic relevance to the improved management of pain.
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          Models and mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia.

          Hyperalgesia and allodynia are frequent symptoms of disease and may be useful adaptations to protect vulnerable tissues. Both may, however, also emerge as diseases in their own right. Considerable progress has been made in developing clinically relevant animal models for identifying the most significant underlying mechanisms. This review deals with experimental models that are currently used to measure (sect. II) or to induce (sect. III) hyperalgesia and allodynia in animals. Induction and expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia are context sensitive. This is discussed in section IV. Neuronal and nonneuronal cell populations have been identified that are indispensable for the induction and/or the expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia as summarized in section V. This review focuses on highly topical spinal mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia including intrinsic and synaptic plasticity, the modulation of inhibitory control (sect. VI), and neuroimmune interactions (sect. VII). The scientific use of language improves also in the field of pain research. Refined definitions of some technical terms including the new definitions of hyperalgesia and allodynia by the International Association for the Study of Pain are illustrated and annotated in section I.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1INSERM U894, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences , Paris, France
            2Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier , Suresnes, France
            Author notes

            Edited by: Pascal Bonaventure, Janssen Research and Development, United States

            Reviewed by: James Daniel Pomonis, American Preclinical Services (APS), United States; Mélanie Kremer, UPR3212 Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives (INCI), France

            *Correspondence: Michel Hamon, michel.hamon@ 123456unafam.org

            This article was submitted to Neuropharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Pharmacol
            Front Pharmacol
            Front. Pharmacol.
            Frontiers in Pharmacology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1663-9812
            07 June 2018
            2018
            : 9
            5999781
            10.3389/fphar.2018.00587
            Copyright © 2018 M’Dahoma, Poitevin, Dabala, Payan, Gabriel, Mocaër, Bourgoin and Hamon.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 72, Pages: 17, Words: 0
            Funding
            Funded by: Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 10.13039/501100001677
            Award ID: U894
            Funded by: Université Pierre et Marie Curie 10.13039/501100005737
            Funded by: Université Paris Descartes 10.13039/501100005413
            Categories
            Pharmacology
            Original Research

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