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      Divergent Regulation of Circulating and Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin Systems in Response to Long-Term Blockade

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin (Ang) II type I (AT<sub>1</sub>) receptor blockers can improve kidney function and attenuate the progressive decline in kidney function associated with age. In this study in Wistar rats medicated for 22 months, we determined the effects of enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) and losartan (30 mg/kg/day) treatment, in comparison with vehicle (tap water), on renal AngII receptor density and circulating and urinary components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Kidney sections were incubated with [<sup>125</sup>I-sarcosine<sup>1</sup>-threonine<sup>8</sup>]AngII (0.6 n M) for Ang receptor density, and Ang peptides were determined using radioimmunoassays. Results: Receptor density was ∼50% higher in vasa recta, glomeruli, and tubulointerstitium in enalapril-treated rats and lower in vasa recta and glomeruli in losartan-treated relative to vehicle-treated rats. Losartan and enalapril treatment elevated plasma levels of AngI and Ang-(1–7) while AngII increased only in losartan-treated rats. In contrast, both treatments were associated with a reduction in urinary excretion of all three Ang peptides as compared with control rats. Conclusion: The reduction in urinary Ang peptides with losartan and enalapril treatment suggests that blockade of intrarenal AngII may be an important mechanism underlying the renoprotection seen with such treatments.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Regulation of intrarenal angiotensin II in hypertension.

          Intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is regulated by several complex processes involving formation from both systemically delivered and intrarenally formed substrate, as well as receptor-mediated internalization. There is substantial compartmentalization of intrarenal Ang II, with levels in the renal interstitial fluid and in proximal tubule fluid being much greater than can be explained from the circulating levels. In Ang II--dependent hypertension, elevated intrarenal Ang II levels occur even when intrarenal renin expression and content are suppressed. Studies in Ang II--infused rats have demonstrated that augmentation of intrarenal Ang II is due, in part, to uptake of circulating Ang II via an Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor mechanism and also to sustained endogenous production of Ang II. Some of the internalized Ang II accumulates in the light and heavy endosomes and is therefore potentially available for intracellular actions. The enhanced intrarenal Ang II also exerts a positive feedback action to augment intrarenal levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) mRNA and protein, which contribute further to the increased intrarenal Ang II in hypertensive states. In addition, renal AT(1) receptor protein and mRNA levels are maintained, allowing increased Ang II levels to elicit progressive effects. The increased intrarenal Ang II activity and AGT production are associated with increased urinary AGT excretion rates. The urinary AGT excretion rates show a clear relationship to kidney Ang II content, suggesting that urinary AGT may serve as an index of Ang II--dependent hypertension. Collectively, the data support a powerful role for intrarenal Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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            The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kidney: effects on kidney disease.

            The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates renal vasomotor activity, maintains optimal salt and water homeostasis, and controls tissue growth in the kidney. However, pathologic consequences can result from overactivity of this cascade, involving it in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. An activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system promotes both systemic and glomerular capillary hypertension, which can induce hemodynamic injury to the vascular endothelium and glomerulus. In addition, direct profibrotic and proinflammatory actions of angiotensin II and aldosterone may also promote kidney damage. The majority of the untoward effects associated with angiotensin II appear to be mediated through its binding to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Aldosterone can also induce renal injury by binding to its receptor in the kidney. An understanding of this system is important to appreciate that inhibitors of this cascade can reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease in proteinuric disease states. Pharmacologic agents that can interfere with this cascade include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists. This paper will provide an overview of the renin-angiotensin system, review its role in kidney disease, examine the renal effects of inhibition of this cascade in experimental animal models, and review clinical studies utilizing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors in patients with diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies.
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              Control of glomerular hypertension limits glomerular injury in rats with reduced renal mass.

              Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed in four groups of male Munich-Wistar rats after removal of the right kidney and segmental infarction of two-thirds of the left kidney. Groups 1 and 3 received no specific therapy. Groups 2 and 4 were treated with the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 50 mg/liter of which was put in their drinking water. All rats were fed standard chow. Groups 1 and 2 underwent micropuncture study 4 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 1 rats exhibited systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to high average values for the mean glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 rats, treatment with enalapril prevented systemic hypertension and maintained the mean glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure gradient at near-normal levels without significantly compromising SNGFR and the glomerular capillary plasma flow rate, as compared with untreated group 1 rats. Groups 3 and 4 were studied 8 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 3 rats demonstrated persistent systemic hypertension, progressive proteinuria, and glomerular structural lesions, including mesangial expansion and segmental sclerosis. In group 4 rats, treatment with enalapril maintained systemic blood pressure at normal levels over the 8-wk period and significantly limited the development of proteinuria and glomerular lesions. These studies suggest that control of glomerular hypertension effectively limits glomerular injury in rats with renal ablation, and further support the view that glomerular hemodynamic changes mediate progressive renal injury when nephron number is reduced.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                August 2005
                18 August 2005
                : 25
                : 4
                : 335-341
                Affiliations
                aHypertension and Vascular Disease Center and Physiology/Pharmacology Department, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C., bDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, P.R., USA; cLaboratory of Cardiovascular Physiopathology, Department of Pathology, University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                86571 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:335–341
                10.1159/000086571
                15976496
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 40, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86571
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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