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      Transcellular migration of leukocytes is mediated by the endothelial lateral border recycling compartment

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          Abstract

          Leukocyte migration across endothelial cell borders (paracellular) and through endothelial cells (transcellular) appear to be distinct processes. During paracellular migration, membrane from a parajunctional reticulum of interconnected vesicles, the endothelial lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC), moves to surround the leukocyte in a kinesin-mediated, microtubule-dependent manner. We show that transcellular migration likewise requires targeted trafficking of LBRC membrane. We show that in addition to platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM; CD31), CD99 and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), but apparently not vascular endothelial cell–specific cadherin (cadherin 5, CD144), are components of the LBRC. During transcellular migration, LBRC membrane invests the transmigrating leukocyte. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the apical endothelial surface is enriched around adherent leukocytes. Depolymerization of microtubules has no effect on ICAM-1 enrichment but blocks targeted trafficking of LBRC membrane and transcellular migration by >90%. Similar to their effects on paracellular transmigration, antibodies against PECAM or CD99, but not JAM-A, block transcellular migration. We conclude that similar molecular mechanisms promote both para- and transcellular migration.

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          Most cited references34

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          Leukocyte-endothelial-cell interactions in leukocyte transmigration and the inflammatory response.

          Both the innate and adaptive immune responses are dependent on the migration of leukocytes across endothelial cells. The process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte crawls between tightly apposed endothelial cells, is a unique and complex process. Several molecules concentrated at the junctions of endothelial cells, originally described as having a role in holding the endothelial monolayer together, have also been shown to have a role in the emigration of leukocytes. Several mechanisms have been proposed for 'loosening' the junctions between endothelial cells to enable leukocyte passage. These leukocyte-endothelial-cell adhesion molecules are probably involved in regulating the signaling as well as the adhesion events of diapedesis. In addition, this Review introduces a new and unified nomenclature for the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family.
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            JAM-1 is a ligand of the beta(2) integrin LFA-1 involved in transendothelial migration of leukocytes.

            Inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes is governed by dynamic interactions between integrins and endothelial immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins. We have identified the IgSF member junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1) as a ligand of the beta(2) integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Under static and physiological flow conditions, JAM-1 contributed to LFA-1-dependent transendothelial migration of T cells and neutrophils as well as LFA-1-mediated arrest of T cells. The latter was triggered by chemokines on endothelium that was stimulated with cytokines to redistribute JAM-1 from the tight junctions. Transfectants expressing JAM-1 supported LFA-1-mediated adhesion of leukocytes, which required the membrane-proximal Ig-like domain 2 of JAM-1. Thus, JAM-1 is a counter-receptor for LFA-1 that is ideally situated to guide and control transmigration during leukocyte recruitment.
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              A transmigratory cup in leukocyte diapedesis both through individual vascular endothelial cells and between them

              The basic route and mechanisms for leukocyte migration across the endothelium remain poorly defined. We provide definitive evidence for transcellular (i.e., through individual endothelial cells) diapedesis in vitro and demonstrate that virtually all, both para- and transcellular, diapedesis occurs in the context of a novel “cuplike” transmigratory structure. This endothelial structure was comprised of highly intercellular adhesion molecule-1– and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1–enriched vertical microvilli-like projections that surrounded transmigrating leukocytes and drove redistribution of their integrins into linear tracks oriented parallel to the direction of diapedesis. Disruption of projections was highly correlated with inhibition of transmigration. These findings suggest a novel mechanism, the “transmigratory cup”, by which the endothelium provides directional guidance to leukocytes for extravasation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                23 November 2009
                : 206
                : 12
                : 2795-2808
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE William A. Muller: wamuller@ 123456northwestern.edu OR Zahra Mamdouh: z-mamdouh@ 123456northwestern.edu
                Article
                20082745
                10.1084/jem.20082745
                2806621
                19887395
                285b5c03-a0ba-4e03-bc96-93eff4da2a0c
                © 2009 Mamdouh et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.jem.org/misc/terms.shtml). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

                History
                : 5 December 2008
                : 6 October 2009
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                Medicine
                Medicine

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