Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Long-Term Non-Progression and Broad HIV-1-Specific Proliferative T-Cell Responses

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term non-progressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilizing cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a “functional cure” may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilized in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term non-progressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viremia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 178

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions.

      Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give, upon secondary challenge, a qualitatively different and quantitatively enhanced response. The nature of the cells that mediate the different facets of immunological memory remains unresolved. Here we show that expression of CCR7, a chemokine receptor that controls homing to secondary lymphoid organs, divides human memory T cells into two functionally distinct subsets. CCR7- memory cells express receptors for migration to inflamed tissues and display immediate effector function. In contrast, CCR7+ memory cells express lymph-node homing receptors and lack immediate effector function, but efficiently stimulate dendritic cells and differentiate into CCR7- effector cells upon secondary stimulation. The CCR7+ and CCR7- T cells, which we have named central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM), differentiate in a step-wise fashion from naive T cells, persist for years after immunization and allow a division of labour in the memory response.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression.

        Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice. Blockade of this pathway using antibodies against the PD ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as CD274) restores CD8 T-cell function and reduces viral load. To investigate the role of PD-1 in a chronic human viral infection, we examined PD-1 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8 T cells in 71 clade-C-infected people who were naive to anti-HIV treatments, using ten major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers specific for frequently targeted epitopes. Here we report that PD-1 is significantly upregulated on these cells, and expression correlates with impaired HIV-specific CD8 T-cell function as well as predictors of disease progression: positively with plasma viral load and inversely with CD4 T-cell count. PD-1 expression on CD4 T cells likewise showed a positive correlation with viral load and an inverse correlation with CD4 T-cell count, and blockade of the pathway augmented HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell function. These data indicate that the immunoregulatory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is operative during a persistent viral infection in humans, and define a reversible defect in HIV-specific T-cell function. Moreover, this pathway of reversible T-cell impairment provides a potential target for enhancing the function of exhausted T cells in chronic HIV infection.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.

          Establishing a CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune correlate of protection in HIV disease is crucial to the development of vaccines designed to generate cell-mediated immunity. Historically, neither the quantity nor breadth of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response has correlated conclusively with protection. Here, we assess the quality of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response by measuring 5 CD8(+) T-cell functions (degranulation, IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-2) simultaneously in chronically HIV-infected individuals and elite nonprogressors. We find that the functional profile of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in progressors is limited compared to that of nonprogressors, who consistently maintain highly functional CD8(+) T cells. This limited functionality is independent of HLA type and T-cell memory phenotype, is HIV-specific rather than generalized, and is not effectively restored by therapeutic intervention. Whereas the total HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequency did not correlate with viral load, the frequency and proportion of the HIV-specific T-cell response with highest functionality inversely correlated with viral load in the progressors. Thus, rather than quantity or phenotype, the quality of the CD8(+) T-cell functional response serves as an immune correlate of HIV disease progression and a potential qualifying factor for evaluation of HIV vaccine efficacy.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Medicine, Imperial College LondonLondon, UK
            Author notes

            Edited by: Nitin Kumar Saksena, Westmead Hospital, Westmead Milennium Institute, Australia

            Reviewed by: Philip Norris, Blood Systems Research Institute, USA; Stephen Kent, University of Melbourne, Australia

            *Correspondence: Nesrina Imami, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK. e-mail: n.imami@123456imperial.ac.uk

            This article was submitted to Frontiers in HIV and AIDS, a specialty of Frontiers in Immunology.

            Journal
            Front Immunol
            Front Immunol
            Front. Immunol.
            Frontiers in Immunology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-3224
            30 January 2013
            01 March 2013
            2013
            : 4
            23459797
            3585435
            10.3389/fimmu.2013.00058
            Copyright © 2013 Imami, Westrop, Grageda and Herasimtschuk.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

            Counts
            Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 179, Pages: 16, Words: 15194
            Categories
            Immunology
            Review Article

            Immunology

            t lymphocytes, ltnp, hiv-1, disease progression, cell proliferation

            Comments

            Comment on this article