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      Recent advances and future prospects of the potential-resolved strategy in ratiometric, multiplex, and multicolor electrochemiluminescence analysis

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          Abstract

          The potential-resolved strategy has gradually demonstrated its distinct values in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) bio-sensing due to its superior characteristics, such as low instrument requirement, short assay time, and improved sample throughput, in conjunction with spatial- and spectrum-resolved techniques. It has recently been widely generalized into versatile multiple-signal ECL analytic platforms, especially in ratiometric and multiplex ECL sensors, in accordance with some specific principles. Furthermore, luminophore pairs with potential- and wavelength-resolved properties have been utilized to visualize biosensors that display multiple colors depending on analyte concentration. However, only a few comprehensive reports on the principles, construction, and application of various ECL sensors in potential-resolved schemes have been published. This review aims to recount the potential-resolved strategy applying to (a) ratiometric ECL sensors, (b) multiplex ECL sensors, and (c) multicolor ECL sensors and to discuss the distinctions and connections among the application principles of these strategies. Finally, the future prospects of ECL-based potential-resolved analysis are explored.

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          Most cited references187

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          Experimental Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS Nanocrystals

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            Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth.

            The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of CdSe nanocrystals during their growth under a given set of initial conditions increases monotonically to a certain maximum value and then decreases gradually. Such a maximum is denoted as a PL "bright point", which does not always overlap with the minimum point of the PL peak width for the same reaction. The experimental results suggest that the existence of the PL bright point is a general phenomenon during the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and likely is a signature of an optimal surface structure/reconstruction of the nanocrystals grown under a given set of initial conditions. The position of the bright point, the highest PL QY, the types of the bright points (sharp or flat), the sharpness of the PL peak, etc., were all strongly dependent on the initial Cd:Se ratio of the precursors in the solution. A large excess of the selenium precursor, with 5-10 times more selenium precursor than the amount of the cadmium precursor, was found necessary to achieve a high PL QY value and a narrow emission profile. The existence of the PL bright point and the sensitive temporal variation of the PL QY during the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals can explain the unpredictable nature and poor reproducibility of the PL properties of the as-prepared semiconductor nanocrystals observed previously. Furthermore, the knowledge gained in this study enabled us to reproducibly synthesize highly luminescent CdSe nanocrystals through a relatively simple and safe synthetic scheme. In a traditionally weak emission window for CdSe nanocrystals, the orange-red optical window, the PL QY of the as-prepared CdSe nanocrystals reached as high as 85% at room temperature, and the full width at half-maximum of the corresponding PL peak was as narrow as 23 nm, about 65-80 meV depending on the emitting position. The PL properties of the as-prepared CdSe nanocrystals are stable upon aging for at least several months. These as-prepared nanocrystals represent a series of best emitters that are highly efficient, highly pure in emission color, stable, and continuously tunable by simply varying the size of the nanocrystals.
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              Recent advances in electrochemiluminescence.

              The great success of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for in vitro diagnosis (IVD) and its promising potential in light-emitting devices greatly promote recent ECL studies. More than 45% of ECL articles were published after 2010, and the first international meeting on ECL was held in Italy in 2014. This critical review discusses recent vibrant developments in ECL, and highlights novel ECL phenomena, such as wireless ECL devices, bipolar electrode-based ECL, light-emitting electrochemical swimmers, upconversion ECL, ECL resonance energy transfer, thermoresponsive ECL, ECL using shape-controlled nanocrystals, and ECL as an ion-selective electrode photonic reporter, a paper-based microchip, and a self-powered microfluidic ECL platform. We also comment on the latest progress in bioassays, light-emitting devices and, the computational approach for the ECL mechanism study. Finally, perspectives and key challenges in the near future are addressed (198 references).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2022
                21 September 2022
                : 12
                : 15
                : 6779-6808
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Life Science, and Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Lab Teaching & Management Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.
                [2 ]Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, China.
                [3 ]Jinfeng Laboratory, Chongqing, 401329, China.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Guangchao Zang, PhD., E-mail: zangguangchao@ 123456cqmu.edu.cn , Tel: +86-23-65712090; Guixue Wang, PhD., E-mail: wanggx@ 123456cqu.edu.cn , Tel: +86-23-65112675; Yuchan Zhang, PhD., E-mail: zhangyc@ 123456cqmu.edu.cn , Tel: +86-23-65712090.

                #These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov12p6779
                10.7150/thno.74308
                9516240
                36185596
                285c6f55-d69f-4ed5-b278-ece43db31215
                © The author(s)

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                History
                : 23 April 2022
                : 9 September 2022
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine
                electrochemiluminescence,potential-resolved strategy,ratiometric electrochemiluminescence sensors,multiplex electrochemiluminescence sensors,multicolor electrochemiluminescence sensors

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