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      In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Streptomyces lavendulae strain SCA5


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          Actinomycetes are Gram-positive, often filamentous, bacteria known for their unsurpassed capacity for the production of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of Streptomyces lavendulae strain SCA5.


          The ethyl acetate extract of SCA5 broth (EA-SCA5) showed antimicrobial activity with MIC value of 31.25 μg/ml. EA-SCA5 showed good antioxidant potential by scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC 50 507.61 ± 0.66 μg/ml), hydroxyl radical (IC 50 617.84 ± 0.57 μg/ml), nitric oxide (IC 50 730.92 ± 0.81 μg/ml) and superoxide anion radical (IC 50 864.71 ± 1.15 μg/ml). The EA-SCA5 also showed strong suppressive effect on rat liver lipid peroxidation (IC 50 838.83 ± 1.18 μg/ml). The total phenolic content of SCA5 was 577.12 mg of GAE equivalents/gram extract. EA-SCA5 exhibited cytotoxic activity on A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell line. It showed 84.9% activity at 500 μg/ml with IC 50 value of 200 μg/ml. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of one major bioactive compound actinomycin C2.


          The results of this study indicate that the EA-SCA5 could be probed further for isolating some medically useful compounds.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-014-0291-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references49

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          Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease

          Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the superoxide radical (O2 ·−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated in the brain and nervous system in vivo, and several areas of the human brain are rich in iron, which appears to be easily mobilizable in a form that can stimulate free-radical reactions. Antioxidant defenses to remove O2 ·− and H2O2 exist. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) remove O2 ·− by greatly accelerating its conversion to H2O2. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H2O2 into water and O2 and help to dispose of H2O2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H2O2-removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases. When produced in excess, ROS can cause tissue injury. However, tissue injury can itself cause ROS generation (e.g., by causing activation of phagocytes or releasing transition metal ions from damaged cells), which may (or may not, depending on the situation) contribute to a worsening of the injury. Assessment of oxidative damage to biomolecules by means of emerging technologies based on products of oxidative damage to DNA (e.g., 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), lipids (e.g., isoprostanes), and proteins (altered amino acids) would not only advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms but also facilitate supplementation and intervention studies designed and conducted to test antioxidant efficacy in human health and disease.
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            Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the industrial microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis.

            Species of the genus Streptomyces are of major pharmaceutical interest because they synthesize a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the linear chromosome of Streptomyces avermitilis. S. avermitilis produces avermectins, a group of antiparasitic agents used in human and veterinary medicine. The genome contains 9,025,608 bases (average GC content, 70.7%) and encodes at least 7,574 potential open reading frames (ORFs). Thirty-five percent of the ORFs (2,664) constitute 721 paralogous families. Thirty gene clusters related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis were identified, corresponding to 6.6% of the genome. Comparison with Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) revealed that an internal 6.5-Mb region in the S. avermitilis genome was highly conserved with respect to gene order and content, and contained all known essential genes but showed perfectly asymmetric structure at the oriC center. In contrast, the terminal regions were not conserved and preferentially contained nonessential genes.
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              Microbial drug discovery: 80 years of progress

              Microbes have made a phenomenal contribution to the health and well-being of people throughout the world. In addition to producing many primary metabolites, such as amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides, they are capable of making secondary metabolites, which constitute half of the pharmaceuticals on the market today and provide agriculture with many essential products. This review centers on these beneficial secondary metabolites, the discovery of which goes back 80 years to the time when penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming.

                Author and article information

                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                30 November 2014
                30 November 2014
                : 14
                : 1
                : 291
                [ ]Division of Microbiology, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, 600 034 India
                [ ]Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2455, Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia
                [ ]Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Chennai, 600 034 India
                [ ]Visiting Professor Programme, College of Science, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                © Saravana Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 19 September 2014
                : 10 November 2014
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology
                sca5, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity


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