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      Menopause and its management: A review

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          Abstract

          Menopausal transition (premenopause) is the phase in the ageing process of women representing the transition from the reproductive stage of life to the non-reproductive stage. With improvements in average life expectancy, women live an increased proportion of their lives in the postmenopause. The consequences of oestrogen loss are the early symptoms (psychological and vasomotor), the genitourinary syndrome (intermediate), as well as postmenopausal osteoporosis with increased risk of fractures and cardiovascular diseases (late). The diagnosis of climacteric syndrome is based on typical clinical symptoms. Perimenopausal women should understand physiological changes occurring in menopausal transition. They should be encouraged to live a healthy lifestyle. Menopausal hormone therapy is indicated for relief of the acute symptoms of menopause and for treatment of urogenital atrophy. It should be administered in the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time. The treatment should be initiated before the age of 60 years or within 10 years after menopause in order to decrease its risks. The benefit/risk profile needs to be individually re-assessed every year.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          2066
          Developments in Health Sciences
          DHS
          Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
          2630-9378
          2630-936X
          12 January 2022
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
          [2 ] Department of Internal Medicine and Hematology, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding author. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University , Üllői út 26, H-1085, Budapest, Hungary. E-mail: molvarec@ 123456gmail.com
          Article
          10.1556/2066.2021.00050
          28618dcb-0b22-48ee-af8b-7e4070573424
          © 2021 The Author(s)

          Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

          Page count
          Equations: 0, References: 16, Pages: 04
          Custom metadata
          1

          Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
          urogenital atrophy,climacteric syndrome,menopause,reproductive ageing,vasomotor symptoms,menopausal hormone therapy

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