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      Cardiac valve calcification as an important predictor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in long-term peritoneal dialysis patients: a prospective study.

      Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN

      Time Factors, Arteriosclerosis, mortality, Calcinosis, ultrasonography, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cause of Death, Cohort Studies, Echocardiography, Female, Aged, Heart Valve Diseases, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Peritoneal Dialysis, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Survival Analysis

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          Calcification complications are frequent among long-term dialysis patients. However, the prognostic implication of cardiac valve calcification in this population is not known. This study aimed to determine if cardiac valve calcification predicts mortality in long-term dialysis patients. Baseline echocardiography was performed in 192 patients (mean +/- SD age, 55 +/- 12 yr) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (mean +/- SD duration of dialysis, 39 +/- 31 mo) to screen for calcification of the aortic valve, mitral valve, or both. Valvular calcification was present in 62 patients. During the mean follow-up of 17.9 mo (range, 0.6 to 33.9 mo), 46 deaths (50% of cardiovascular causes) were observed. Overall 1-yr survival was 70% and 93% for patients with and without valvular calcification (P < 0.0001, log-rank test). Cardiovascular mortality was 22% and 3% for patients with and without valvular calcification (P < 0.0001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that cardiac valve calcification was predictive of an increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32 to 4.76; P = 0.005) and cardiovascular death (HR 5.39; 95% CI, 2.16 to 13.48; P = 0.0003) independent of age, male gender, dialysis duration, C-reactive protein, diabetes, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Eighty-nine percent of patients with both valvular calcification and atherosclerotic vascular disease, 23% of patients with valvular calcification only, 21% of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease only, and 13% of patients with neither complication died at 1-yr (P < 0.0005). The cardiovascular death rate was 85% for patients with both complications, 13% for patients with valvular calcification only, 14% for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease only, and 5% for those with neither complication (P < 0.0005). The number of calcified valves was associated with all-cause mortality (P < 0.0005) and cardiovascular death (P < 0.0005). One-year all-cause mortality was 57% for patients with both aortic and mitral valves calcified, 40% for those with either valve calcified, and 15% for those with neither valve calcified. In conclusion, cardiac valve calcification is a powerful predictor for mortality and cardiovascular deaths in long-term dialysis patients. Valvular calcification by itself has similar prognostic importance as the presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Its coexistence with other atherosclerotic complications indicates more severe disease and has the worst outcome.

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