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      Oxidants in Cigarette Smoke Radicals, Hydrogen Peroxide, Peroxynitrate, and Peroxynitrite

      ,

      Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 46

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          Free-radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications.

           D Church,  W A Pryor (1985)
          Cigarette smoke contains two very different populations of free radicals, one in the tar and one in the gas phase. The tar phase contains several relatively stable free radicals; we have identified the principal radical as a quinone/hydroquinone (Q/QH2) complex held in the tarry matrix. We suggest that this Q/QH2 polymer is an active redox system that is capable of reducing molecular oxygen to produce superoxide, eventually leading to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, we have shown that the principal radical in tar reacts with DNA in vitro, possibly by covalent binding. The gas phase of cigarette smoke contains small oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals that are much more reactive than are the tar-phase radicals. These gas-phase radicals do not arise in the flame, but rather are produced in a steady state by the oxidation of NO to NO2, which then reacts with reactive species in smoke such as isoprene. We suggest that these radicals and the metastable products derived from these radical reactions may be responsible for the inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by fresh smoke. Cigarette smoke oxidizes thiols to disulfides; we suggest the active oxidants are NO and NO2. The effects of smoke on lipid peroxidation are complex, and this is discussed. We also discuss the toxicological implications for the radicals in smoke in terms of a number of radical-mediated disease processes, including emphysema and cancer.
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            Human plasma proteinase inhibitors.

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              Formation of 8-hydroxyguanine moiety in cellular DNA by agents producing oxygen radicals and evidence for its repair.

              8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) was detected in DNA isolated from HeLa cells after the cells in tissue culture had been irradiated with X-rays and from the liver of mice after the whole animals had been irradiated with gamma-rays. The amounts of 8-OH-dG in DNA after in vivo irradiation were three orders of magnitude lower than those after in vitro irradiation (0.008-0.032 8-OH-dG residue/10(5) dG/krad). The 8-OH-dG produced in liver DNA by irradiation of mice decreased with time, suggesting the presence of a repair enzyme(s) acting on 8-OH-dG in mouse liver. Treatment of Salmonella typhimurium cells with hydrogen peroxide also caused increase in the 8-OH-dG content. These results indicate that 8-OH-dG is formed in vivo in cellular DNA on treatment with various oxygen radical-producing agents and that it is repairable.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
                Ann NY Acad Sci
                Wiley
                0077-8923
                1749-6632
                May 1993
                May 1993
                : 686
                : 1 Tobacco Smoki
                : 12-27
                Article
                10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb39148.x
                8512242
                © 1993

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