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      Infections Due to Antimicrobial-Resistant Pathogens in the Dialysis Unit

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

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          Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group.

          Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.
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            Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Belgian renal dialysis units.

            The molecular epidemiology of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) colonizing the intestinal tracts of Belgian renal dialysis patients was studied among 1318 patients of a population of 1800 dialysis patients from 29 dialysis centers. Of these, 185 patients (14.0%) were colonized with a VANA-positive GRE; GRE harboring the VANB gene were not detected. The majority of the VANA GRE (80.5%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium; 14.8% were identified as E. faecalis; and a limited number were identified as E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E. dispar, E. durans, or E. gallinarum. Genome analysis of 277 VANA-positive GRE by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a high genetic variability both within the different dialysis centers and within the patients' own GRE flora. No high-level gentamicin-resistant VANA-positive GRE were detected, and most strains remained susceptible to ampicillin. These findings do not support a hospital-driven endemicity of VANA-positive enterococcal isolates in Belgium.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              BPU
              Blood Purif
              10.1159/issn.0253-5068
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              978-3-8055-7080-0
              978-3-318-00581-3
              0253-5068
              1421-9735
              2000
              2000
              18 August 2000
              : 18
              : 4
              : 355-360
              Affiliations
              Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga., USA
              Article
              14462 Blood Purif 2000;18:355–360
              10.1159/000014462
              10965081
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 6
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/14462
              Categories
              Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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