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      Functional Bowel Disorders in Iranian Population using Rome III Criteria

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim:

          To study the prevalence and risk factors of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Iranian community using Rome III criteria.

          Materials and Methods:

          This study was a cross-sectional household survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran, including 18,180 participants who were selected randomly and interviewed face-to-face by a validated questionnaire based on Rome III criteria.

          Results:

          In all, 1.1% met the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 2.4% for functional constipation (FC), and 10.9% of the participants had any type of FBD. Among participants with functional dyspepsia, 83.8% had FBD; the majority cases were unspecified functional bowel disorder (U-FBD). Of the subjects fulfilling the IBS criteria, IBS with constipation (52%) was the most frequent subtype. In the multivariate analysis, women had a higher risk of any FBDs than men, except for functional diarrhea (FD). The prevalence of FBD, FC and FD increased and IBS decreased with increasing age. Marital status was only associated with a decrease in the risk of FBD and FD, respectively. IBS subtypes compared with FC and FD. There was no significant difference between FC and IBS with constipation (IBS-C), except for self-reported constipation; while, IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) had more symptoms than FD.

          Conclusion:

          This study revealed a low rate of FBDs among the urban population of Tehran province. The ROME III criteria itself, and the problems with interpretation of the data collection tool may have contributed in underestimating the prevalence of FBD. In addition the reliability of recall over 6 months in Rome III criteria is questionable for our population.

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          Most cited references 49

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          The prevalence, patterns and impact of irritable bowel syndrome: an international survey of 40,000 subjects.

          To determine the prevalence, symptom pattern and impact of the irritable bowel syndrome, across eight European countries, using a standardized methodology. A community survey of 41 984 individuals was performed using quota sampling and random digit telephone dialing to identify those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome or those meeting diagnostic criteria, followed by in-depth interviews. The overall prevalence was 11.5% (6.2-12%); 9.6% had current symptoms, 4.8% had been formally diagnosed and a further 2.9%, 4.2% and 6.5% met the Rome II, Rome I or Manning criteria, respectively. Bowel habit classification varied by criteria: 63% had an 'alternating' bowel habit by Rome II vs. 21% by self-report. On average, 69% reported symptoms lasting for 1 h, twice daily, for 7 days a month. Irritable bowel syndrome sufferers reported more peptic ulcer (13% vs. 6%), reflux (21% vs. 7%) and appendectomy (17% vs. 11%), but not hysterectomy, cholecystectomy or bladder procedures. Ninety per cent had consulted in primary care and 17% in hospital; 69% had used medication. Irritable bowel syndrome substantially interfered with lifestyle and caused absenteeism. Irritable bowel syndrome is common with major effects on lifestyle and health care. The majority of cases are undiagnosed and the prevalence varies strikingly between countries. Diagnostic criteria are associated with varying prevalences and bowel habit sub-types. This limits their utility in clinical practice and the transferability of research findings using them.
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            Irritable bowel syndrome in the United States: prevalence, symptom patterns and impact.

            The impact of irritable bowel syndrome, a gastrointestinal motility disorder, is underestimated and poorly quantified, as clinicians may see only a minority of sufferers. To determine the prevalence, symptom patterns and impact of irritable bowel syndrome in the US. This two-phase community survey used quota sampling and random-digit telephone dialing (screening interview) to identify individuals with medically diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome or individuals not formally diagnosed, but fulfilling irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic criteria (Manning, Rome I or II). Information on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, general health status, lifestyle and impact of symptoms on individuals' lives was collected using in-depth follow-up interviews. Data were also collected for healthy controls identified in the screening interviews. The total prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in 5009 screening interviews was 14.1% (medically diagnosed: 3.3%; undiagnosed, but meeting irritable bowel syndrome criteria: 10.8%). Abdominal pain/discomfort was the most common symptom prompting consultation. Most sufferers (74% medically diagnosed; 63% undiagnosed) reported alternating constipation and diarrhoea. Previously diagnosed gastrointestinal disorders occurred more often in sufferers than non-sufferers. Irritable bowel syndrome sufferers had more days off work (6.4 vs. 3.0) and days in bed, and reduced activities to a greater extent than non-sufferers. Most (76.6%) irritable bowel syndrome sufferers in the US are undiagnosed. Irritable bowel syndrome has a substantial impact on sufferers' well-being and health, with considerable socioeconomic consequences.
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              Epidemiology of colonic symptoms and the irritable bowel syndrome.

              Functional gastrointestinal disease is believed to be very common, but reports of its prevalence have not usually evaluated random community samples, and validated questionnaires have not been used to elicit symptoms. The prevalence of specific colonic symptoms and the irritable bowel syndrome among representative middle-aged whites was determined from a defined population, and the impact of these symptoms on presentation for medical care was measured. An age- and sex-stratified random sample of 1021 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, aged 30-64 years, was obtained. All subjects were mailed a valid self-report questionnaire that identified gastrointestinal symptoms and functional gastrointestinal disorders. The response rate was 82% (n = 835). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of abdominal pain (more than six times in the prior year) was 26.2 per 100 (95% confidence interval, 23.1-29.2). The prevalence of chronic constipation (hard stools and straining and/or less than 3 stools per week greater than 25% of the time) was 17.4 (95% confidence interval, 14.8-20.0), whereas the prevalence of chronic diarrhea (loose watery stools, and/or greater than 3 stools per day greater than 25% of the time) was 17.9 (95% confidence interval, 15.3-20.5). The prevalence of abdominal pain and disturbed defecation was similar in women and men, except that infrequent defecation and straining at stool were more common in women. Using the Manning symptom criteria to identify irritable bowel syndrome (greater than or equal to 2 of 6 symptoms in those with abdominal pain more than six times in the prior year), the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome was 17.0 per 100 (95% confidence interval, 14.4-19.6). Overall, 71 persons (9%) reported visiting a physician for abdominal pain or disturbed defecation in the prior year; a subset of variables related to pain severity were the best predictors of health care seeking after adjustment for age and gender. However, these accounted for only 22% of the log likelihood. In conclusion, more than one third of an unselected middle-aged population reported chronic abdominal pain or disturbed defecation, and more than one in six had symptoms compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome. Only a minority had presented for medical evaluation; moreover, the characteristics of the abdominal complaints did not explain the seeking of health care in most cases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Saudi J Gastroenterol
                SJG
                Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology : Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
                Medknow Publications (India )
                1319-3767
                1998-4049
                July 2010
                : 16
                : 3
                : 154-160
                Affiliations
                Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University (M.C), Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Pourhoseingholi, Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University (M.C), Tehran, Iran. E-mail: aminphg@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                SJG-16-154
                10.4103/1319-3767.65183
                3003223
                20616409
                © The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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