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      Simultaneous Identification and Dynamic Analysis of Saccharides during Steam Processing of Rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema by HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS

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          Abstract

          The sweet rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema are widely used as a tonic and functional food. A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous identification and dynamic analysis of saccharides during steam processing in P. cyrtonema using HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. Fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, and 1-kestose were identified, as well as a large number of oligosaccharides constituted of fructose units through β-(2→1) or β-(2→6). Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were decomposed to monosaccharides during a steaming process, since the contents of glucose, galactose, and fructose were increased, while those of sucrose, 1-kestose, and polysaccharides were decreased. The high content of fructose was revealed to be the main determinant for increasing the level of sweetness after steaming. The samples of different repeated steaming times were shown to be well grouped and gradually shift along the PC1 (72.4%) axis by principal component analysis. The small-molecule saccharides, especially fructose, could be considered as markers for the steaming process of rhizomes of P. cyrtonema.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Steaming of ginseng at high temperature enhances biological activity.

          The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of steaming ginseng at a temperature over 100 degrees C on its chemical constituents and biological activities. Raw ginseng was steamed at 100, 110, and 120 degrees C for 2 h using an autoclave. The ginseng steamed at 120 degrees C was more potent in its ability to induce endothelium-dependent relaxation. Steaming the raw ginseng at 120 degrees C also remarkably increased the radical-scavenging activity. Ginsenosides F(4), Rg(3), and Rg(5), which were not present in raw ginseng, were produced after steaming. Ginsenosides Rg(3) and Rg(5) were the most abundant ginsenosides in the ginseng steamed at 120 degrees C, accounting for 39% and 19% of all ginsenosides, respectively.
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            Fructans: Prebiotics and immunomodulators

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              Inulin-type fructans: a review on different aspects of biochemical and pharmaceutical technology.

              Inulin is a natural storage polysaccharide with a large variety of food and pharmaceutical applications. It is widely distributed in plants, being present as storage carbohydrate in more than 30,000 vegetable products. Due to their wide distribution in nature and significant role in industry, the extraction, isolation and characterization of inulin-type fructans are gaining attention in recent years. Inulin sources have recently received increasing interest as they are a renewable raw material for the production of bioethanol, fructose syrup, single-cell protein and single cell oil, obtainment of fructooligosaccharides and other useful products. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of biochemical and pharmaceutical technology of inulin-type fructans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                02 November 2018
                November 2018
                : 23
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Hunan Academy of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410013, China; jinjian2016@ 123456163.com (J.J.); 20162010@ 123456stu.hnucm.edu.cn (Y.Q.); canzhong651@ 123456163.com (C.Z.); axxj2057@ 123456163.com (J.X.); 350013@ 123456hnucm.edu.cn (H.L.); 350017@ 123456hnucm.edu.cn (D.W.)
                [2 ]School of Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
                [3 ]2011 Collaboration and Innovation Center for Digital Chinese Medicine in Hunan, Changsha 410208, China
                [4 ]Resgreen Group International Inc., Changsha 410329, China; laojia1973@ 123456163.com (J.L.); hewei3218@ 123456126.com (W.H.)
                [5 ]College of Pharmacy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, China; rz172@ 123456georgetown.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zhangshuihan0220@ 123456126.com (S.Z.); dlqyh@ 123456sohu.com (Y.Q.); Tel.: +86-0731-8888-1651 (S.Z.); +86-0731-8885-4257 (Y.Q.)
                Article
                molecules-23-02855
                10.3390/molecules23112855
                6278431
                30400172
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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