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      Myocardial Reinfarction in a Patient with Coronary Ectasia

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          Abstract

          A 47-year-old male patient was admitted to our Emergency Hospital’s coronary unit with an acute myocardial infarction, localized inferolaterally. He had been hospitalized 2 months before this occurrence because of persistent chest pain accompanied by elevation of the ST segment in precordial and inferior leads, for which he received thrombolytic therapy. Selective cardiac catheterization was then also effected, and showed diffuse ectasia of coronary arteries with no significant stenoses. Since streptokinase had been applied recently, the patient was given standard therapy as well as electroshocks because of chamber fibrillation. Two hours after admission, the infarct pain ceased and rapid ECG improvement occurred. Repeated coronarography showed a situation identical to the previous one. The patient was sent home to proceed with drug therapy.

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          Clinical and angiographic features in patients under 35 years with a first Q wave acute myocardial infarction.

          Sixty patients less than 35 years with a first Q wave acute myocardial infarction were prospectively studied to evaluate their features, risk factors and evidence of any viral infection. Typical chest pain was present in 98.3% with Q waves and ST segment elevation in all. None had hypotension or cardiogenic shock. Smoking was the most common risk factor (81.7%). Mean total cholesterol was 5.74 (+/-1.42) mmol/l. History of a viral illness was present in 28.3%, severe emotional stress in 21.7% and exhausting physical activity in 18.3%. Mean left ventricular diastolic and end systolic volumes were increased (90.11+/-22.5 ml/m2) and (46.62+/-20.46 ml/m2), respectively. The ejection fraction was depressed (49.71+/-1.6%). Triple vessel disease was seen only in 6.8 and 26.7% had insignificant or no coronary artery disease. Left anterior descending artery was most frequently involved (66%). None had left main involvement. Coronary ectasia was present in 11.7%, intracoronary thrombus in 28.3% and 40% had collaterals. Patients with no significant disease had no diabetes, a smaller number had a raised total cholesterol or smoked and had a lower ejection fraction. Patients from the Indian subcontinent who had fewer conventional risk factors, had more severe disease than those from the Arab world suggesting that other etiological factors need investigation.
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            Clinical Features and Outcome of Coronary Artery Aneurysm in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

            Background: While coronary artery aneurysm is an uncommon anatomic disorder and has various forms, its clinical features and outcome and its impact on thrombus formation and the no-reflow phenomenon in the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) have not been discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this anatomic disorder predisposes to a high burden of thrombus formation, and subsequently leads to the no-reflow phenomenon and untoward clinical outcome in patients with AMI undergoing p-PCI. Methods and Results: In our hospital, emergency p-PCI was performed in 924 consecutive patients with AMI between May 1993 and July 2001. Of these 924 patients, 24 patients (2.6%) who had an infarct-related artery (IRA) with aneurysmal dilatation were retrospectively registered and constituted the patient population of this study. Angiographic findings demonstrated that the ectasia type (defined as diffuse dilatation of 50% or more of the length of the IRA) was found most frequently (70%), followed by the fusiform type (20%; defined as a spindle-shaped dilatation in the IRA) and the saccular type (10%; defined as a localized spherical-shaped dilatation in the IRA). The right coronary artery was the most frequently involved vessel (54.2%), followed by the left anterior descending (25.0%) and the left circumflex arteries (20.8%). Coronary angiography revealed that all of these aneurysmal IRA filled with heavy thrombus (indicated as high-burden thrombus formation). The no-reflow phenomenon (defined as ≤TIMI-2 flow) and distal embolization after p-PCI were found in 62.5 and 70.8% of the IRA, respectively. The incidence of cardiogenic shock and the 30-day mortality rate were 25 and 8.3%, respectively. The survival rate was 90.9% (20/22) during a mean follow-up of 19 ± 30 months. Conclusions: While aneurysmal dilatation of an IRA is an uncommon angiographic finding in the clinical setting of AMI, it is frequently associated with high-burden thrombus formation and has a significantly lower incidence of successful reperfusion. However, the long-term survival of these patients is excellent.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              CRD
              Cardiology
              10.1159/issn.0008-6312
              Cardiology
              S. Karger AG
              0008-6312
              1421-9751
              2004
              April 2004
              28 April 2004
              : 102
              : 1
              : 32-34
              Affiliations
              University Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Emergency Hospital, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
              Article
              77000 Cardiology 2004;102:32–34
              10.1159/000077000
              15004454
              © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, References: 8, Pages: 3
              Categories
              Case Report

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