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Germline polymorphisms in SIPA1 are associated with metastasis and other indicators of poor prognosis in breast cancer

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      Abstract

      Introduction

      There is growing evidence that heritable genetic variation modulates metastatic efficiency. Our previous work using a mouse mammary tumor model has shown that metastatic efficiency is modulated by the GTPase-activating protein encoded by Sipa1 ('signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1'). The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the human SIPA1 gene are associated with metastasis and other disease characteristics in breast cancer.

      Method

      The study population (n = 300) consisted of randomly selected non-Hispanic Caucasian breast cancer patients identified from a larger population-based series. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Three previously described SNPs within SIPA1 (one within the promoter [-313G>A] and two exonic [545C>T and 2760G>A]) were characterized using SNP-specific PCR.

      Results

      The variant 2760G>A and the -313G>A allele were associated with lymph node involvement (P = 0.0062 and P = 0.0083, respectively), and the variant 545C>T was associated with estrogen receptor negative tumors (P = 0.0012) and with progesterone negative tumors (P = 0.0339). Associations were identified between haplotypes defined by the three SNPs and disease progression. Haplotype 3 defined by variants -313G>A and 2760G>A was associated with positive lymph node involvement (P = 0.0051), and haplotype 4 defined by variant 545C>T was associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative status (P = 0.0053 and P = 0.0199, respectively).

      Conclusion

      Our findings imply that SIPA1 germline polymorphisms are associated with aggressive disease behavior in the cohort examined. If these results hold true in other populations, then knowledge of SIPA1 SNP genotypes could potentially enhance current staging protocols.

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      Most cited references 30

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      The effect of mammary gland-specific expression of the polyomavirus middle T antigen was examined by establishing lines of transgenic mice that carry the middle T oncogene under the transcriptional control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter/enhancer. By contrast to most transgenic strains carrying activated oncogenes, expression of polyomavirus middle T antigen resulted in the widespread transformation of the mammary epithelium and the rapid production of multifocal mammary adenocarcinomas. Interestingly, the majority of the tumor-bearing transgenic mice developed secondary metastatic tumors in the lung. Taken together, these results suggest that middle T antigen acts as a potent oncogene in the mammary epithelium and that cells that express it possess an enhanced metastatic potential.
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        Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Incidence and mortality rates are age standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,368,030 new cancer cases and 563,700 deaths are expected in the United States in 2004. Incidence rates stabilized among men from 1995 through 2000 but continued to increase among females by 0.4% per year from 1987 through 2000. Mortality rates have decreased by 1.5% per year since 1992 among men, but have stabilized from 1998 through 2000 among women. Cancer death rates continued to decrease from the three major cancer sites in men (lung and bronchus, colon and rectum, and prostate) and from female breast and colorectal cancers in women. In analyses by race and ethnicity, African-American men and women have 40% and 20% higher death rates from all cancers combined compared with White men and women, respectively. Cancer incidence and mortality rates are lower in other racial and ethnic groups than in Whites and African Americans for all sites combined and for the four major cancer sites. However, these groups generally have higher rates for stomach, liver, and cervical cancers than do Whites. Furthermore, minority populations are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage disease than are Whites. Progress in reducing the burden from cancer can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge into practice among all segments of the population.
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          Relation of tumor size, lymph node status, and survival in 24,740 breast cancer cases.

          Two of the most important prognostic indicators for breast cancer are tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement. Data on 24,740 cases recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute were used to evaluate the breast cancer survival experience in a representative sample of women from the United States. Actuarial (life table) methods were used to investigate the 5-year relative survival rates in cases with known operative/pathologic axillary lymph node status and primary tumor diameter. Survival rates varied from 45.5% for tumor diameters equal to or greater than 5 cm with positive axillary nodes to 96.3% for tumors less than 2 cm and with no involved nodes. The relation between tumor size and lymph node status was investigated in detail. Tumor diameter and lymph node status were found to act as independent but additive prognostic indicators. As tumor size increased, survival decreased regardless of lymph node status; and as lymph node involvement increased, survival status also decreased regardless of tumor size. A linear relation was found between tumor diameter and the percent of cases with positive lymph node involvement. The results of our analyses suggest that disease progression to distant sites does not occur exclusively via the axillary lymph nodes, but rather that lymph node status serves as an indicator of the tumor's ability to spread.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1]Laboratory of Population Genetics, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
            [2]Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
            Contributors
            Journal
            Breast Cancer Res
            Breast Cancer Research
            BioMed Central (London)
            1465-5411
            1465-542X
            2006
            21 March 2006
            : 8
            : 2
            : R16
            1483843
            bcr1389
            16563182
            10.1186/bcr1389
            Copyright © 2006 Crawford et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Oncology & Radiotherapy

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