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      Nonmuscle myosin-2: mix and match

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          Abstract

          Members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 (NM-2) family of actin-based molecular motors catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into directed movement and force thereby acting as central regulatory components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. By cyclically interacting with adenosine triphosphate and F-actin, NM-2 isoforms promote cytoskeletal force generation in established cellular processes like cell migration, shape changes, adhesion dynamics, endo- and exo-cytosis, and cytokinesis. Novel functions of the NM-2 family members in autophagy and viral infection are emerging, making NM-2 isoforms regulators of nearly all cellular processes that require the spatiotemporal organization of cytoskeletal scaffolding. Here, we assess current views about the role of NM-2 isoforms in these activities including the tight regulation of NM-2 assembly and activation through phosphorylation and how NM-2-mediated changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and mechanics affect cell physiological functions in health and disease.

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          Most cited references 184

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          Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II: modulated by G proteins, kinases, and myosin phosphatase.

          Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II reflects the ratio of activities of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) to myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and is a major, regulated determinant of numerous cellular processes. We conclude that the majority of phenotypes attributed to the monomeric G protein RhoA and mediated by its effector, Rho-kinase (ROK), reflect Ca2+ sensitization: inhibition of myosin II dephosphorylation in the presence of basal (Ca2+ dependent or independent) or increased MLCK activity. We outline the pathway from receptors through trimeric G proteins (Galphaq, Galpha12, Galpha13) to activation, by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), from GDP. RhoA. GDI to GTP. RhoA and hence to ROK through a mechanism involving association of GEF, RhoA, and ROK in multimolecular complexes at the lipid cell membrane. Specific domains of GEFs interact with trimeric G proteins, and some GEFs are activated by Tyr kinases whose inhibition can inhibit Rho signaling. Inhibition of MLCP, directly by ROK or by phosphorylation of the phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17, increases phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain and thus the activity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle actomyosin ATPase and motility. We summarize relevant effects of p21-activated kinase, LIM-kinase, and focal adhesion kinase. Mechanisms of Ca2+ desensitization are outlined with emphasis on the antagonism between cGMP-activated kinase and the RhoA/ROK pathway. We suggest that the RhoA/ROK pathway is constitutively active in a number of organs under physiological conditions; its aberrations play major roles in several disease states, particularly impacting on Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle in hypertension and possibly asthma and on cancer neoangiogenesis and cancer progression. It is a potentially important therapeutic target and a subject for translational research.
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            Mechanism of blebbistatin inhibition of myosin II.

            Blebbistatin is a recently discovered small molecule inhibitor showing high affinity and selectivity toward myosin II. Here we report a detailed investigation of its mechanism of inhibition. Blebbistatin does not compete with nucleotide binding to the skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. The inhibitor preferentially binds to the ATPase intermediate with ADP and phosphate bound at the active site, and it slows down phosphate release. Blebbistatin interferes neither with binding of myosin to actin nor with ATP-induced actomyosin dissociation. Instead, it blocks the myosin heads in a products complex with low actin affinity. Blind docking molecular simulations indicate that the productive blebbistatin-binding site of the myosin head is within the aqueous cavity between the nucleotide pocket and the cleft of the actin-binding interface. The property that blebbistatin blocks myosin II in an actin-detached state makes the compound useful both in muscle physiology and in exploring the cellular function of cytoplasmic myosin II isoforms, whereas the stabilization of a specific myosin intermediate confers a great potential in structural studies.
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              Two distinct actin networks drive the protrusion of migrating cells.

              Cell migration initiates by extension of the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge. Computational analysis of fluorescent speckle microscopy movies of migrating epithelial cells revealed this process is mediated by two spatially colocalized but kinematically, kinetically, molecularly, and functionally distinct actin networks. A lamellipodium network assembled at the leading edge but completely disassembled within 1 to 3 micrometers. It was weakly coupled to the rest of the cytoskeleton and promoted the random protrusion and retraction of the leading edge. Productive cell advance was a function of the second colocalized network, the lamella, where actomyosin contraction was integrated with substrate adhesion.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49-511-5323700 , +49-511-5325966 , manstein.dietmar@mh-hannover.de
                Journal
                Cell Mol Life Sci
                Cell. Mol. Life Sci
                Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
                SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel (Basel )
                1420-682X
                1420-9071
                8 May 2012
                8 May 2012
                January 2013
                : 70
                : 1
                : 1-21
                Affiliations
                Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
                Article
                1002
                10.1007/s00018-012-1002-9
                3535348
                22565821
                © The Author(s) 2012
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Basel 2013

                Molecular biology

                cytoskeleton, nonmuscle myosin-2, regulation, review

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