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Survival of patients with stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening.

The New England journal of medicine

Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Adult, adverse effects, Tobacco Smoke Pollution, Survival Rate, Smoking, Occupational Exposure, Neoplasm Staging, Middle Aged, Male, radiography, pathology, mortality, Lung Neoplasms, Lung, Longitudinal Studies, Humans, Female, Case-Control Studies, Carcinoma, Biopsy, Algorithms, Aged, 80 and over, Aged

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      Abstract

      The outcome among patients with clinical stage I cancer that is detected on annual screening using spiral computed tomography (CT) is unknown. In a large collaborative study, we screened 31,567 asymptomatic persons at risk for lung cancer using low-dose CT from 1993 through 2005, and from 1994 through 2005, 27,456 repeated screenings were performed 7 to 18 months after the previous screening. We estimated the 10-year lung-cancer-specific survival rate among participants with clinical stage I lung cancer that was detected on CT screening and diagnosed by biopsy, regardless of the type of treatment received, and among those who underwent surgical resection of clinical stage I cancer within 1 month. A pathology panel reviewed the surgical specimens obtained from participants who underwent resection. Screening resulted in a diagnosis of lung cancer in 484 participants. Of these participants, 412 (85%) had clinical stage I lung cancer, and the estimated 10-year survival rate was 88% in this subgroup (95% confidence interval [CI], 84 to 91). Among the 302 participants with clinical stage I cancer who underwent surgical resection within 1 month after diagnosis, the survival rate was 92% (95% CI, 88 to 95). The 8 participants with clinical stage I cancer who did not receive treatment died within 5 years after diagnosis. Annual spiral CT screening can detect lung cancer that is curable. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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      Most cited references 22

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      Revisions in the International System for Staging Lung Cancer.

      Revisions in stage grouping of the TNM subsets (T=primary tumor, N=regional lymph nodes, M=distant metastasis) in the International System for Staging Lung Cancer have been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer. These revisions were made to provide greater specificity for identifying patient groups with similar prognoses and treatment options with the least disruption of the present classification: T1N0M0, stage IA; T2N0M0, stage IB; T1N1M0, stage IIA; T2N1M0 and T3N0M0, stage IIB; and T3N1M0, T1N2M0, T2N2M0, T3N2M0, stage IIIA. The TNM subsets in stage IIIB-T4 any N M0, any T N3M0, and in stage IV-any T any N M1, remain the same. Analysis of a collected database representing all clinical, surgical-pathologic, and follow-up information for 5,319 patients treated for primary lung cancer confirmed the validity of the TNM and stage grouping classification schema.
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        Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening.

        The Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP) is designed to evaluate baseline and annual repeat screening by low-radiation-dose computed tomography (low-dose CT) in people at high risk of lung cancer. We report the baseline experience. ELCAP has enrolled 1000 symptom-free volunteers, aged 60 years or older, with at least 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking and no previous cancer, who were medically fit to undergo thoracic surgery. After a structured interview and informed consent, chest radiographs and low-dose CT were done for each participant. The diagnostic investigation of screen-detected non-calcified pulmonary nodules was guided by ELCAP recommendations, which included short-term high-resolution CT follow-up for the smallest non-calcified nodules. Non-calcified nodules were detected in 233 (23% [95% CI 21-26]) participants by low-dose CT at baseline, compared with 68 (7% [5-9]) by chest radiography. Malignant disease was detected in 27 (2.7% [1.8-3.8]) by CT and seven (0.7% [0.3-1.3]) by chest radiography, and stage I malignant disease in 23 (2.3% [1.5-3.3]) and four (0.4% [0.1-0.9]), respectively. Of the 27 CT-detected cancers, 26 were resectable. Biopsies were done on 28 of the 233 participants with non-calcified nodules; 27 had malignant non-calcified nodules and one had a benign nodule. Another three individuals underwent biopsy against the ELCAP recommendations; all had benign non-calcified nodules. No participant had thoracotomy for a benign nodule. Low-dose CT can greatly improve the likelihood of detection of small non-calcified nodules, and thus of lung cancer at an earlier and potentially more curable stage. Although false-positive CT results are common, they can be managed with little use of invasive diagnostic procedures.
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          CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules.

          In the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP), we found not only solid but also part-solid and nonsolid nodules in patients at both baseline and repeat CT screening for lung cancer. We report the frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules in comparison with solid nodules. We reviewed all instances of a positive finding in patients at baseline (from one to six noncalcified nodules) and annual repeat screenings (from one to six newly detected noncalcified nodules with interim growth) to classify each of the nodules as solid, part-solid, or nonsolid. We defined a solid nodule as a nodule that completely obscures the entire lung parenchyma within it. Part-solid nodules are those having sections that are solid in this sense, and nonsolid nodules are those with no solid parts. Chi-square statistics were used to test for differences in the malignancy rates. Among the 233 instances of positive results at baseline screening, 44 (19%) involved a part-solid or nonsolid largest nodule (16 part-solid and 28 nonsolid). Among these 44 cases of positive findings, malignancy was diagnosed in 15 (34%) as opposed to a 7% malignancy rate for solid nodules (p = 0.000001). The malignancy rate for part-solid nodules was 63% (10/16), and the rate for nonsolid nodules was 18% (5/28). Even after standardizing for nodule size, the malignancy rate was significantly higher for part-solid nodules than for either solid ones (p = 0.004) or nonsolid ones (p = 0.03). The malignancy type in the part-solid or nonsolid nodules was predominantly bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features, contrasting with other subtypes of adenocarcinoma found in the solid nodules (p = 0.0001). At annual repeat screenings, only 30 instances of positive test results have been obtained; seven of these involved part-solid or nonsolid nodules. In CT screening for lung cancer, the detected nodule commonly is either only part-solid or nonsolid, but such a nodule is more likely to be malignant than a solid one, even when nodule size is taken into account.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.1056/NEJMoa060476
            17065637

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