03 May 2021
Major high-risk surgery (HRS) exposes patients to potential perioperative adverse events. Hepatic resection of colorectal metastases can surely be included into the HRS class of operations. Limiting such risks is the main target of the perioperative medicine. In this context the collaboration between the anesthetist and the surgeon and the sharing of management protocols is of utmost importance and represents the key issue for a successful outcome. In our institution, we have been adopting consolidated protocols for patients undergoing this type of surgery for decades; this made our mixed team (surgeons and anesthetists) capable of achieving a safe outcome for the majority of our surgical population. In this narrative review, we report the most recent state of the art of perioperative management of hepatic resection of colorectal metastases along with our experience in this field, trying to point out the main issues.
Hepatic resection has been widely accepted as the first choice for the treatment of colorectal metastases. Liver surgery has been recognized as a major abdominal procedure; it exposes patients to a high risk of perioperative adverse events. Decision sharing and the multimodal approach to the patients’ management are the two key items for a safe outcome, even in such a high-risk surgery. This review aims at addressing the main perioperative issues (preoperative evaluation; general anesthesia and intraoperative fluid management and hemodynamic monitoring; intraoperative metabolism; administration policy for blood-derivative products; postoperative pain control; postoperative complications), in particular, from the anesthetist’s point of view; however, only an alliance with the surgery team may be successful in case of adverse events to accomplish a good final outcome.