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      Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes.

      Nature

      Protein Transport, metabolism, chemistry, Membrane Transport Proteins, cytology, Eukaryotic Cells, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cell Membrane, Bacteria

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          Abstract

          A decisive step in the biosynthesis of many proteins is their partial or complete translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum membrane or the prokaryotic plasma membrane. Most of these proteins are translocated through a protein-conducting channel that is formed by a conserved, heterotrimeric membrane-protein complex, the Sec61 or SecY complex. Depending on channel binding partners, polypeptides are moved by different mechanisms: the polypeptide chain is transferred directly into the channel by the translating ribosome, a ratcheting mechanism is used by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP, and a pushing mechanism is used by the bacterial ATPase SecA. Structural, genetic and biochemical data show how the channel opens across the membrane, releases hydrophobic segments of membrane proteins laterally into lipid, and maintains the membrane barrier for small molecules.

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          Journal
          10.1038/nature06384
          18046402

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