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      Prevalence of the rs7903146C>T polymorphism in TCF7L2 gene for prediction of type 2 diabetes risk among Iranians of different ethnicities

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic polymorphisms affecting responses to drug therapy. The common rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, prevalence of the rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene for prediction of T2D risk was examined in an Iranian population of different ethnicities.

          Methods

          The prevalence of rs7903146 (C>T) and the predicted phenotypes, including extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers were investigated in blood samples of 300 unrelated healthy individuals in an Iranian population, including Fars, Turk, Lure, and Kurd, using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct genomic DNA sequencing.

          Results

          The homozygous wild-type (C/C), heterozygous (C/T), and homozygous (T/T) allelic frequencies of rs7903146 (C>T) in the TCF7L2 gene were 29% (extensive metabolizers), 66.34% (intermediate metabolizers), and 4.66% (poor metabolizers), respectively. The C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypic frequencies of the rs7903146 (C>T) allele were significantly different ( P<0.01) among Iranians of different ethnicities. The frequency of the homozygous T/T variant of the rs7903146 (C>T) allele was significantly low in the Lure ( P<0.01) and high in the Fars ( P<0.001) ethnicities. Additionally, the frequency of the T/T variant of the rs7903146 (C>T) allele in the South of Iran was the highest ( P<0.04), while the East of Iran had the lowest frequency ( P<0.01).

          Conclusion

          The prediction of rs7903146 (C>T) is required in drug research and routine treatment, where the information would be helpful for clinicians to optimize therapy and adverse drug reactions and predict drug response in individuals at risk of T2D.

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          Most cited references 34

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          TCF7L2 polymorphisms and progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

          Common polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether the two most strongly associated variants (rs12255372 and rs7903146) predict the progression to diabetes in persons with impaired glucose tolerance who were enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program, in which lifestyle intervention or treatment with metformin was compared with placebo. We genotyped these variants in 3548 participants and performed Cox regression analysis using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors. We assessed the effect of genotype on measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity at baseline and at one year. Over an average period of three years, participants with the risk-conferring TT genotype at rs7903146 were more likely to have progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes than were CC homozygotes (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.20 to 2.01; P<0.001). The effect of genotype was stronger in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.70; P=0.004) than in the metformin and lifestyle-intervention groups (hazard ratios, 1.62 and 1.15, respectively; P for the interaction between genotype and intervention not significant). The TT genotype was associated with decreased insulin secretion but not increased insulin resistance at baseline. Similar results were obtained for rs12255372. Common variants in TCF7L2 seem to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes among persons with impaired glucose tolerance. The risk-conferring genotypes in TCF7L2 are associated with impaired beta-cell function but not with insulin resistance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004992. [ClinicalTrials.gov]). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Large-scale association studies of variants in genes encoding the pancreatic beta-cell KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) and SUR1 (ABCC8) confirm that the KCNJ11 E23K variant is associated with type 2 diabetes.

            The genes ABCC8 and KCNJ11, which encode the subunits sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir6.2) of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, control insulin secretion. Common polymorphisms in these genes (ABCC8 exon 16-3t/c, exon 18 T/C, KCNJ11 E23K) have been variably associated with type 2 diabetes, but no large ( approximately 2,000 subjects) case-control studies have been performed. We evaluated the role of these three variants by studying 2,486 U.K. subjects: 854 with type 2 diabetes, 1,182 population control subjects, and 150 parent-offspring type 2 diabetic trios. The E23K allele was associated with diabetes in the case-control study (odds ratio [OR] 1.18 [95% CI 1.04-1.34], P = 0.01) but did not show familial association with diabetes. Neither the exon 16 nor the exon 18 ABCC8 variants were associated with diabetes (1.04 [0.91-1.18], P = 0.57; 0.93 [0.71-1.23], P = 0.63, respectively). Meta-analysis of all case-control data showed that the E23K allele was associated with type 2 diabetes (K allele OR 1.23 [1.12-1.36], P = 0.000015; KK genotype 1.65 [1.34-2.02], P = 0.000002); but the ABCC8 variants were not associated. Our results confirm that E23K increases risk of type 2 diabetes and show that large-scale association studies are important for the identification of diabetes susceptibility alleles.
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              Cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics and cancer.

              The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are key enzymes in cancer formation and cancer treatment. They mediate the metabolic activation of numerous precarcinogens and participate in the inactivation and activation of anticancer drugs. Since all CYPs that metabolize xenobiotics are polymorphic, much emphasis has been put on the investigation of a relationship between the distribution of specific variant CYP alleles and risk for different types of cancer, but a consistent view does not yet exist. This is to a great extent explained by the fact that the CYPs involved in activation of precarcinogens are in general not functionally polymorphic. This is in contrast to CYPs that are active in drug biotransformation where large interindividual differences in the capacity to metabolize therapeutic drugs are seen as a consequence of polymorphic alleles with altered function. This includes also some anticancer drugs like tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Some P450 forms are also selectively expressed in tumours, and this could provide a mechanism for drug resistance, but also future therapies using these enzymes as drug targets can be envisioned. This review gives an up-to-date description of our current knowledge in these areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                28 October 2015
                : 9
                : 5835-5841
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Biology, Ahar Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
                [2 ]Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Biology, Sciences and Research Branch, Azad University, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
                [5 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Taban Clinic, Tehran, Iran
                [6 ]Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Massoud Houshmand, Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Shahrak-e Pajoohesh, km 15, Tehran – Karaj Highway, PO Box 14965/161, Tehran, Iran, Tel +98 21 4458 0390, Fax +98 21 4458 0399, Email massoudh@ 123456nigeb.ac.ir
                Article
                dddt-9-5835
                10.2147/DDDT.S82485
                4629960
                © 2015 Allahdini et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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