Gagnepainia godefroyi K. Schumann, 1904 and G. harmandii K. Schumann, 1904 belong to the genus Gagnepainia K. Schumann, 1904 of the Ginger family. They have the potential to be developed as medicinal and attractive ornamental plants. To date, the knowledge on the cytological and reproductive aspects of Gagnepainia have not been publicly available. Therefore, the aims of this research are to investigate the cytogenetic and pollen characters of Gagnepainia species using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopes. The regular meiotic figures of 15 bivalents are found in both species and presented for the first time. These evidences indicate that Gagnepainia is diploid and contains 2 n = 2 x = 30 with basic number of x = 15. The mean nuclear DNA contents range from 1.986 pg in Gagnepainia sp., 2.090 pg in G. godefroyi to 2.195 pg in G. harmandii . Pollens of all species are monad, inaperturate, prolate with bilateral symmetry, and thick wall with fossulate exine sculpturing. The pollen size of G. harmandii (74.506 ± 5.075 μm, 56.082 ± 6.459 μm) is significantly larger than that of G. godefroyi (59.968 ± 3.484 μm, 45.439 ± 2.870 μm). Both 2C DNA content and pollen size are the effective characteristics for species discrimination. The reproductive evidence of high meiotic stability and normal pollen production indicate that both Gagnepainia species have high fertility and seed productivity, which are in accordance with the broad distribution. The present study provides good cytogenetic and pollen characters not only for plant identification, but also plant fertility assessment through plant genetic resource management and improvement of Gagnepainia .