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      Cytogenetic and pollen identification of genus Gagnepainia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand

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          Gagnepainia godefroyi K. Schumann, 1904 and G. harmandii K. Schumann, 1904 belong to the genus Gagnepainia K. Schumann, 1904 of the Ginger family. They have the potential to be developed as medicinal and attractive ornamental plants. To date, the knowledge on the cytological and reproductive aspects of Gagnepainia have not been publicly available. Therefore, the aims of this research are to investigate the cytogenetic and pollen characters of Gagnepainia species using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopes. The regular meiotic figures of 15 bivalents are found in both species and presented for the first time. These evidences indicate that Gagnepainia is diploid and contains 2 n = 2 x = 30 with basic number of x = 15. The mean nuclear DNA contents range from 1.986 pg in Gagnepainia sp., 2.090 pg in G. godefroyi to 2.195 pg in G. harmandii . Pollens of all species are monad, inaperturate, prolate with bilateral symmetry, and thick wall with fossulate exine sculpturing. The pollen size of G. harmandii (74.506 ± 5.075 μm, 56.082 ± 6.459 μm) is significantly larger than that of G. godefroyi (59.968 ± 3.484 μm, 45.439 ± 2.870 μm). Both 2C DNA content and pollen size are the effective characteristics for species discrimination. The reproductive evidence of high meiotic stability and normal pollen production indicate that both Gagnepainia species have high fertility and seed productivity, which are in accordance with the broad distribution. The present study provides good cytogenetic and pollen characters not only for plant identification, but also plant fertility assessment through plant genetic resource management and improvement of Gagnepainia .

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          The origin, evolution and proposed stabilization of the terms 'genome size' and 'C-value' to describe nuclear DNA contents.

          Perusing the literature on nuclear 'genome size' shows that the term is not stabilized, but applied with different meanings. It is used for the DNA content of the complete chromosome complement (with chromosome number n), for which others use 'C-value', but also for the DNA content of the monoploid chromosome set only (with chromosome number x). Reconsideration of the terminology is required. Our purpose is to discuss the currently unstable usage of the terms 'genome size' and 'C-value', and to propose a new unified terminology which can describe nuclear DNA contents with ease and without ambiguity. We argue that there is a need to maintain the term genome size in a broad sense as a covering term, because it is widely understood, short and phonetically pleasing. Proposals are made for a unified and consensual terminology. In this, 'genome size' should mean the DNA content based on chromosome number x and n, and should be used mainly in a general sense. The necessary distinction of the kinds of genome sizes is made by the adjectives 'monoploid' and the neology 'holoploid'. 'Holoploid genome size' is a shortcut for the DNA content of the whole chromosome complement characteristic for the individual (and by generalization for the population, species, etc.) irrespective of the degree of generative polyploidy, aneuploidies, etc. This term was lacking in the terminology and is for reasons of linguistic consistency indispensable. The abbreviated terms for monoploid and holoploid genome size are, respectively, Cx-value and C-value. Quantitative data on genome size should always indicate the C-level by a numerical prefix, such as 1C, 1Cx, 2C, etc. The proposed conventions cover general fundamental aspects relating to genome size in plants and animals, but do not treat in detail cytogenetic particularities (e.g. haploids, hybrids, etc.) which will need minor extensions of the present scheme in a future paper.
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            Chromosome numbers and genome size variation in Indian species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae).

            Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that significantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unbalanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the Indian subcontinent, and an assessment was made of the value of these data for taxonomic purposes. Genome size of 161 homogeneously cultivated plant samples classified into 51 taxonomic entities was determined by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome numbers were counted in actively growing root tips using conventional rapid squash techniques. Six different chromosome counts (2n = 22, 42, 63, >70, 77 and 105) were found, the last two representing new generic records. The 2C-values varied from 1.66 pg in C. vamana to 4.76 pg in C. oligantha, representing a 2.87-fold range. Three groups of taxa with significantly different homoploid genome sizes (Cx-values) and distinct geographical distribution were identified. Five species exhibited intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content, reaching up to 15.1 % in cultivated C. longa. Chromosome counts and genome sizes of three Curcuma-like species (Hitchenia caulina, Kaempferia scaposa and Paracautleya bhatii) corresponded well with typical hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) Curcuma spp. The basic chromosome number in the majority of Indian taxa (belonging to subgenus Curcuma) is x = 7; published counts correspond to 6x, 9x, 11x, 12x and 15x ploidy levels. Only a few species-specific C-values were found, but karyological and/or flow cytometric data may support taxonomic decisions in some species alliances with morphological similarities. Close evolutionary relationships among some cytotypes are suggested based on the similarity in homoploid genome sizes and geographical grouping. A new species combination, Curcuma scaposa (Nimmo) Skornick. & M. Sabu, comb. nov., is proposed.
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              The phylogeny, evolution, and classification of the genus Globba and tribe Globbeae (Zingiberaceae): appendages do matter.

              The genus Globba (100 species) is one of the largest genera in the primarily tropical Zingiberaceae. Globba along with the small genera Gagnepainia, Hemiorchis, and Mantisia comprise the Globbeae, one of the two tribes of subfamily Zingiberoideae. Traditional infrageneric classification in Globba has focused on the number of anther appendages: zero, two, or four. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses were conducted on nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnK-matK data from a broad sampling of Globba and related genera. Results show Mantisia to be monophyletic but nested within Globba, while Hemiorchis and Gagnepainia are monophyletic genera that are sister to each other. Anther appendage number and shape, along with inflorescence and fruit morphology, are the most important characters for understanding evolutionary relationships in Globba. A new infrageneric classification system for Globba, recognizing three subgenera and seven sections is presented. The four species of Mantisia are formally transferred into Globba but retained as a distinct section. Within Globba, a notable biogeographic boundary is seen at the Isthmus of Kra in southern Thailand.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                13 January 2020
                : 14
                : 1
                : 11-25
                [1 ] Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Puangpaka Umpunjun ( puangpaka.ump@ 123456mahidol.ac.th )

                Academic editor: Kai Wang

                Paramet Moonkaew, Nattapon Nopporncharoenkul, Thaya Jenjittikul, Puangpaka Umpunjun

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST), SASTMU5938789, Thailand Center of Excellence on Biodiversity (CEB), BDC-PG3-160014 and Mahidol University (MU-RSPG - 2560 - 2562).
                Research Article


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