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      Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0%) of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1%) of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628). However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59), emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82), increased amount of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion), and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93) were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.

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          Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of lung disease and mortality: findings from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

          To determine whether a modified Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predicts mortality in a cohort of subjects followed for up to 11 years. We analyzed data from 15,759 adult participants, aged 43-66 years at baseline, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. All baseline and follow-up data were available for 15,440 (97.9%) of the initial participants. We classified subjects using a modification of the GOLD criteria for COPD (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) stratification of disease severity), and added a "restricted" category (FEV(1)/FVC>70% and FVC<80% predicted). We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the risk of impaired lung function on subsequent mortality, after adjusting for age, race, sex and smoking status. 1242 (8.0%) subjects died by the end of 1997. The overall rate of death was 8.9 per 1000 person years, but varied from 5.4/1000 among normal subjects to 42.9/1000 among subjects with GOLD Stage 3 or 4 COPD. After adjusting for covariates, all GOLD categories, along with the restricted category, predicted a higher risk of death: GOLD Stage 3 or 4, hazard ratio (HR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4, 7.3; GOLD Stage 2 HR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0, 2.9; GOLD Stage 1 HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.6; GOLD Stage 0 HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3, 1.8; and restricted HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.9, 2.8. The modified GOLD classification system of COPD predicts mortality in this cohort of middle-aged Americans followed for up to 11 years.
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            To determine how risk factors could be combined to best predict the development of a postoperative pulmonary complication (PPC) following abdominal surgery. Prospective model-building study. Logistic regression models were developed using significant risk factors identified in the univariate analysis. Four midwestern hospitals. Convenience sample of 400 patients who underwent abdominal surgical procedures between January 1993 and August 1995. Multicriteria outcome for postoperative pulmonary complication used to collectively assess atelectasis and pneumonia. Twenty-three risk factors were assessed. Six risk factors were identified as independent by logistic regression: age > or = 60 years (adjusted odds ratio [Adj OR], 1.89); impaired preoperative cognitive function (Adj OR, 5.93); smoking history within the past 8 weeks (Adj OR, 2.27); body mass index > or = 27 (Adj OR, 2.82); history of cancer (Adj OR, 2.23); and incision site-upper abdominal or both upper/lower abdominal incision (Adj OR 2.30). These results provide a framework for identifying patients at risk of developing a PPC following abdominal surgery. A reliable and valid risk index could be used clinically to guide preoperative and postoperative pulmonary care and target limited resources for patients at risk.
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              We recruited 985 patients with COPD but without hypoxemia or other serious disease, treated them in a standard fashion, and followed them closely for nearly 3 yr. At the time of recruitment the patients were carefully characterized as to symptom severity, lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life, and studies of lung function were repeated during follow-up. Overall mortality was 23% in 3 yr of follow-up. Patient age and the initial value of the FEV1 were the most accurate predictors of death; when FEV1 before bronchodilator was used, the response to bronchodilators was directly related to survival, but this relationship became nonsignificant when postbronchodilator FEV1 was used as a primary predictor. After adjustment for age and FEV1, mortality was related positively to TLC, resting heart rate, and perceived physical disability, and related negatively to exercise tolerance. These relationships, though significant, were relatively weak. When standardized for age and FEV1, mortality in the present series was less than that of a previous series (4), and the same as that of hypoxemic patients with COPD who received continuous home O2 therapy. Changes in FEV1 with time averaged -44 ml/yr, but the standard deviation was large. Patients with low initial values of FEV1 showed relatively little further decline, probably indicating a survivor effect. In patients with well-preserved initial FEV1, rate of decline correlated negatively with bronchodilator response, symptomatic wheezing, and psychological disturbances.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                09 November 2016
                : 11
                : 2785-2796
                Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yeon-Mok Oh, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea, Tel +82 2 3010 3136, Fax +82 2 3010 4650, Email ymoh55@
                © 2016 Kim et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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