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      Contratos de acceso a recursos genéticos y solicitudes de patente en Colombia: Mitos y realidades Translated title: Contracts for access to genetic resources and patent applications in Colombia: Myths and realities

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Se realiza un análisis empírico y actualizado de las solicitudes de patente en trámite ante la oficina colombiana de patentes y que requieren de contrato de acceso a recursos genéticos y/o productos derivados (CARG o PD). Se identifican 15 casos y a partir del análisis del trámite, se describen los principales mitos existentes sobre este tema, analizando para cada uno si se trata de afirmaciones ciertas o falsas. Se destaca que hay mejoras en los tiempos y número de contratos de acceso firmados por parte del Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (MADS), que los solicitantes de patente y/o apoderados no están haciendo un correcto uso de la declaración juramentada o divulgación de origen sobre uso de recursos genéticos y/o productos derivados, y que aún se debe mejorar en la identificación de casos que requieren CARG o PD por parte de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio (SIC). Asimismo, se estudian las obligaciones adquiridas por los firmantes del CARG o PD y los beneficios monetarios y no monetarios acordados con el MADS, encontrando que mientras las obligaciones suelen ser estándar para todos los CARG o PD, los beneficios pactados tanto monetarios como no monetarios sí son distintos. Se enuncian estadísticas actualizadas de los contratos de acceso firmados. Se concluye identificando los principales temas y destinatarios que deben reforzarse en las capacitaciones de estos asuntos y los espacios para mejorar la interacción entre el MADS, la SIC y los usuarios e investigadores.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT An empirical and updated analysis is made of the patent applications that are processed in the Colombian patent office and that require a contract for access to genetic resources or derivatives (CARG or PD). 15 cases of this type of requests are identified and from the study of the process, the main existing myths on this subject are identified, analyzing for each one whether they are true or false statements. It is highlighted that there are improvements in the times and number of access contracts signed by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MADS), that patent applicants and /or attorneys are not making a correct use of the sworn statement about the use of genetic resources or PD, and that still needs to be improved in the identification of cases that require CARG or PD by the Patent Office Superintendence of Industry and Commerce (SIC). Likewise, the obligations acquired by the signatories of the CARG or PD and the monetary and non-monetary benefits that the MADS is demanding are analyzed, finding that while the obligations are usually standard for all the CARG or PD, the agreed benefits, both monetary and non-monetary are different. It concludes by identifying the main topics and actors on which the training on these issues should be reinforced and the spaces to improve the interaction between the patents and environmental authorities.

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          Most cited references 11

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          An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas

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            A Review of Bioinsecticidal Activity of Solanaceae Alkaloids

            Only a small percentage of insect species are pests. However, pest species cause significant losses in agricultural and forest crops, and many are vectors of diseases. Currently, many scientists are focused on developing new tools to control insect populations, including secondary plant metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, terpenoids, organic acids and alcohols, which show promise for use in plant protection. These compounds can affect insects at all levels of biological organization, but their action generally disturbs cellular and physiological processes, e.g., by altering redox balance, hormonal regulation, neuronal signalization or reproduction in exposed individuals. Secondary plant metabolites cause toxic effects that can be observed at both lethal and sublethal levels, but the most important effect is repellence. Plants from the Solanaceae family, which contains numerous economically and ecologically important species, produce various substances that affect insects belonging to most orders, particularly herbivorous insects and other pests. Many compounds possess insecticidal properties, but they are also classified as molluscides, acaricides, nematocides, fungicides and bactericides. In this paper, we present data on the sublethal and lethal toxicity caused by pure metabolites and crude extracts obtained from Solanaceae plants. Pure substances as well as water and/or alcohol extracts cause lethal and sublethal effects in insects, which is important from the economical point of view. We discuss the results of our study and their relevance to plant protection and management.
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              A novel thermoalkalostable esterase from Acidicaldus sp. strain USBA-GBX-499 with enantioselectivity isolated from an acidic hot springs of Colombian Andes.

              Several thermo- and mesoacidophilic bacterial strains that revealed high lipolytic activity were isolated from water samples derived from acidic hot springs in Los Nevados National Natural Park (Colombia). A novel lipolytic enzyme named 499EST was obtained from the thermoacidophilic alpha-Proteobacterium Acidicaldus USBA-GBX-499. The gene estA encoded a 313-amino-acid protein named 499EST. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (58 %) with a putative α/β hydrolase from Acidiphilium sp. (ZP_08632277.1). Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicated that 499EST is a new member of the bacterial esterase/lipase family IV. The esterase reveals its optimum catalytic activity at 55 °C and pH 9.0. Kinetic studies showed that 499EST preferentially hydrolyzed middle-length acyl chains (C6-C8), especially p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) caproate (C6). Its thermostability and activity were strongly enhanced by adding 6 mM FeCl3. High stability in the presence of water-miscible solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was observed. This enzyme also exhibits stability under harsh environmental conditions and enantioselectivity towards naproxen and ibuprofen esters, yielding the medically relevant (S)-enantiomers. In conclusion, according to our knowledge, 499EST is the first thermoalkalostable esterase derived from a Gram-negative thermoacidophilic bacterium.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                biote
                Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología
                Rev. colomb. biotecnol
                Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                0123-3475
                June 2019
                : 21
                : 1
                : 57-70
                Affiliations
                orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Derecho Colombia oalizarazoc@ 123456unal.edu.co
                orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia dimdazaga@ 123456unal.edu.co
                Article
                S0123-34752019000100057
                10.15446/rev.colomb.biote.v21n1.78120

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 14
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                Artículos/Investigación

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