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      B4GALNT1 induces angiogenesis, anchorage independence growth and motility, and promotes tumorigenesis in melanoma by induction of ganglioside GM2/GD2

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          Abstract

          β-1,4-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminyltransferase 1 (B4GALNT1) encodes the key enzyme B4GALNT1 to generate gangliosides GM2/GD2. GM2/GD2 gangliosides are surface glycolipids mainly found on brain neurons as well as peripheral nerves and skin melanocytes and are reported to exacerbate the malignant potential of melanomas. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we performed functional analyses of B4GALNT1-overexpressing cells. We analyzed ganglioside pattern on four melanoma and two neuroblastoma cell lines by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We overexpressed B4GALNT1 in GM2/GD2-negative human melanoma cell line (SH4) and confirmed production of GM2/GD2 by HPLC. They showed higher anchorage independence growth (AIG) in colony formation assay, and exhibited augmented motility. In vitro, cell proliferation was not affected by GM2/GD2 expression. In vivo, GM2/GD2-positive SH4 clones showed significantly higher tumorigenesis in NOD/Scid/IL2Rγ-null mice, and immunostaining of mouse CD31 revealed that GM2/GD2 induced remarkable angiogenesis. No differences were seen in melanoma stem cell and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition markers between GM2/GD2-positive and -negative SH4 cells. We therefore concluded that B4GALNT1, and consequently GM2/GD2, enhanced tumorigenesis via induction of angiogenesis, AIG, and cell motility. RNA-Seq suggested periostin as a potential key factor for angiogenesis and AIG. These findings may lead to development of novel therapy for refractory melanoma.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma: 2-year overall survival outcomes in a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.

          Results from phase 2 and 3 trials in patients with advanced melanoma have shown significant improvements in the proportion of patients achieving an objective response and prolonged progression-free survival with the combination of nivolumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) plus ipilimumab (an anti-CTLA-4 antibody) compared with ipilimumab alone. We report 2-year overall survival data from a randomised controlled trial assessing this treatment in previously untreated advanced melanoma.
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            The role of BRAF V600 mutation in melanoma

            BRAF is a serine/threonine protein kinase activating the MAP kinase/ERK-signaling pathway. About 50 % of melanomas harbors activating BRAF mutations (over 90 % V600E). BRAFV600E has been implicated in different mechanisms underlying melanomagenesis, most of which due to the deregulated activation of the downstream MEK/ERK effectors. The first selective inhibitor of mutant BRAF, vemurafenib, after highly encouraging results of the phase I and II trial, was compared to dacarbazine in a phase III trial in treatment-naïve patients (BRIM-3). The study results showed a relative reduction of 63 % in risk of death and 74 % in risk of tumor progression. Considering all trials so far completed, median overall survival reached approximately 16 months for vemurafenib compared to less than 10 months for dacarbazine treatment. Vemurafenib has been extensively tested on melanoma patients expressing the BRAFV600E mutated form; it has been demonstrated to be also effective in inhibiting melanomas carrying the V600K mutation. In 2011, both FDA and EMA therefore approved vemurafenib for metastatic melanoma carrying BRAFV600 mutations. Some findings suggest that continuation of vemurafenib treatment is potentially beneficial after local therapy in a subset of patients with disease progression (PD). Among who continued vemurafenib >30 days after local therapy of PD lesion(s), a median overall survival was not reached, with a median follow-up of 15.5 months from initiation of BRAF inhibitor therapy. For patients who did not continue treatment, median overall survival from the time of disease progression was 1.4 months. A clinical phase I/II trial is evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of vemurafenib in combination with the CTLA-4 inhibitor mAb ipilimumab. In the BRIM-7 trial vemurafenib is tested in association with GDC-0973, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2. Preliminary data seem to indicate that an additional inhibitor of mutated BRAF, GSK2118436, might be also active on a wider range of BRAF mutations (V600E-K-D-R); actually, treatment with such a compound is under evaluation in a phase III study among stage III-IV melanoma patients positive for BRAF mutations. Overall, BRAF inhibitors were well tolerated; common adverse events are arthralgia, rash, fatigue, alopecia, keratoacanthoma or cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma, photosensitivity, nausea, and diarrhea, with some variants between different inhibitors.
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              Periostin potently promotes metastatic growth of colon cancer by augmenting cell survival via the Akt/PKB pathway.

              Molecular mechanisms associated with tumor metastasis remain poorly understood. Here we report that acquired expression of periostin by colon cancer cells greatly promoted metastatic development of colon tumors. Periostin is overexpressed in more than 80% of human colon cancers examined with highest expression in metastatic tumors. Periostin expression dramatically enhanced metastatic growth of colon cancer by both preventing stress-induced apoptosis in the cancer cells and augmenting endothelial cell survival to promote angiogenesis. At the molecular level, periostin activated the Akt/PKB signaling pathway through the alpha(v)beta(3) integrins to increase cellular survival. These data demonstrated that the survival-promoting function is crucial for periostin to promote tumor metastasis of colon cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yamam016@umn.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                27 January 2020
                27 January 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000419368657, GRID grid.17635.36, Department of Surgery, , University of Minnesota, ; Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.489169.b, Department of Molecular Biology, , Osaka International Cancer Institute, ; Osaka, Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000419368657, GRID grid.17635.36, Masonic Cancer Center, , University of Minnesota, ; Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000419368657, GRID grid.17635.36, Stem Cell Institute, , University of Minnesota, ; Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
                Article
                57130
                10.1038/s41598-019-57130-2
                6985110
                31988291
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                melanoma, glycobiology, cell migration, cancer genetics, tumour angiogenesis

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