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      Movement Disorders Related to Gluten Sensitivity: A Systematic Review


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          Gluten related disorders (GRD) represent a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that are triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is the most widely recognised, but extra-intestinal manifestations have also been increasingly identified and reported. Such manifestations may exist in the absence of enteropathy. Gluten sensitivity (GS) is another term that has been used to include all GRD, including those where there is serological positivity for GS related antibodies in the absence of an enteropathy. Gluten ataxia (GA) is the commonest extraintestinal neurological manifestation and it has been the subject of many publications. Other movement disorders (MDs) have also been reported in the context of GS. The aim of this review was to assess the current available medical literature concerning MDs and GS with and without enteropathy. A systematic search was performed while using PubMed database. A total of 48 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. This review highlights that the phenomenology of gluten related MDs is broader than GA and demonstrates that gluten-free diet (GFD) is beneficial in a great percentage of such cases.

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          Restless legs syndrome is a common yet frequently undiagnosed sensorimotor disorder. In 1995, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group developed standardized criteria for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Since that time, additional scientific scrutiny and clinical experience have led to a better understanding of the condition. Modification of the criteria is now necessary to better reflect that increased body of knowledge, as well as to clarify slight confusion with the wording of the original criteria. The restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Members of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group and authorities on epidemiology and the design of questionnaires and scales. To modify the current criteria for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, to develop new criteria for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in the cognitively impaired elderly and in children, to create standardized criteria for the identification of augmentation, and to establish consistent questions for use in epidemiology studies. The essential diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome were developed and approved by workshop participants and the executive committee of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Criteria were also developed and approved for the additional aforementioned groups.
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            This is a proposal of the Movement Disorder Society for a clinical classification of tremors. The classification is based on the distinction between rest, postural, simple kinetic, and intention tremor (tremor during target-directed movements). Additional data from a medical history and the results of a neurologic examination can be combined into one of the following clinical syndromes defined in this statement: enhanced physiologic tremor, classical essential tremor (ET), primary orthostatic tremor, task- and position-specific tremors, dystonic tremor, tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), cerebellar tremor, Holmes' tremor, palatal tremor, drug-induced and toxic tremor, tremor in peripheral neuropathies, or psychogenic tremor. Conditions such as asterixis, epilepsia partialis continua, clonus, and rhythmic myoclonus can be misinterpreted as tremor. The features distinguishing these conditions from tremor are described. Controversial issues are outlined in a comment section for each item and thus reflect the open questions that at present cannot be answered on a scientific basis. We hope that this statement provides a basis for better communication among clinicians working in the field and stimulates tremor research.
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              Systematic review: worldwide variation in the frequency of coeliac disease and changes over time.

              Coeliac disease (CD), originally thought to be largely confined to Northern Europe and Australasia and uncommon in North America and the Middle East, is now recognised to be equally common in all these countries. It is still thought to be rare in the Orient and Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess geographical differences and time trends in the frequency of CD. Medline and Embase searches were conducted on 10 November 2012, from 1946 and 1980 respectively, using the key words: coeliac disease or celiac disease + prevalence or incidence or frequency. There were significant intra- and inter-country differences in the prevalence and incidence of CD. Only 24 ethnic Chinese and Japanese patients have been reported in the English literature. Of CD-associated HLA DQ antigens, DQ2 occurs in 5-10% of Chinese and sub-Saharan Africans, compared to 5-20% in Western Europe. DQ8 occurs in 5-10% of English, Tunisians and Iranians, but in <5% of Eastern Europeans, Americans and Asians. The prevalence and incidence of both clinically and serologically diagnosed CD increased in recent years. These geographical and temporal differences seem genuine, although variable indices of suspicion and availability of diagnostic facilities are confounding factors. Coeliac disease is increasing in frequency, with significant geographical differences. Although few cases have been described to date in the Orient and Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a significant prevalence of HLA DQ2 and wheat consumption is of the same order as that in Western Europe. CD may therefore become more common in the future in these countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                Author and article information

                08 August 2018
                August 2018
                : 10
                : 8
                Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, South Yorkshire, UK; takiszis@ 123456gmail.com (P.Z.); Richard.Grunewald@ 123456sth.nhs.uk (R.A.G); m.hadjivassiliou@ 123456sth.nhs.uk (M.H.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: anavinara@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +34-606-706-294
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Nutrition & Dietetics

                movement disorders, coeliac disease, gluten, gluten free diet


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