27
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Cellular Immune Responses to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Infection in Senescent BALB/c Mice: CD4+ T Cells Are Important in Control of SARS-CoV Infection

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          ABSTRACT

          We characterized the cellular immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in 12- to 14-month-old BALB/c mice, a model that mimics features of the human disease. Following intranasal administration, the virus replicated in the lungs, with peak titers on day 2 postinfection. Enhanced production of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and chemokines (CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5) correlated with migration of NK cells, macrophages, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) into the lungs. By day 7, histopathologic evidence of pneumonitis was seen in the lungs when viral clearance occurred. At this time, a second wave of enhanced production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, gamma interferon [IFN-γ], IL-2, and IL-5), chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5), and receptors (CXCR3, CCR2, and CCR5), was detected in the lungs, associated with an influx of T lymphocytes. Depletion of CD8 + T cells at the time of infection did not affect viral replication or clearance. However, depletion of CD4 + T cells resulted in an enhanced immune-mediated interstitial pneumonitis and delayed clearance of SARS-CoV from the lungs, which was associated with reduced neutralizing antibody and cytokine production and reduced pulmonary recruitment of lymphocytes. Innate defense mechanisms are able to control SARS-CoV infection in the absence of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and antibodies. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SARS, demonstrating the important role of CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells in primary SARS-CoV infection in this model.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Identification of a Novel Coronavirus in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

          The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome

             C Wong,  C W K Lam,  A K L Wu (2004)
            Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently emerged infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, but its immunopathological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated changes in plasma T helper (Th) cell cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in 20 patients diagnosed with SARS. Cytokine profile of SARS patients showed marked elevation of Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-12 for at least 2 weeks after disease onset, but there was no significant elevation of inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, Th1 cytokine IL-2 and Th2 cytokine IL-4. The chemokine profile demonstrated significant elevation of neutrophil chemokine IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and Th1 chemokine IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10). Corticosteroid reduced significantly IL-8, MCP-1 and IP-10 concentrations from 5 to 8 days after treatment (all P < 0·001). Together, the elevation of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12 and chemokines IL-8, MCP-1 and IP-10 confirmed the activation of Th1 cell-mediated immunity and hyperinnate inflammatory response in SARS through the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Monocyte-mediated defense against microbial pathogens.

              Circulating blood monocytes supply peripheral tissues with macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) precursors and, in the setting of infection, also contribute directly to immune defense against microbial pathogens. In humans and mice, monocytes are divided into two major subsets that either specifically traffic into inflamed tissues or, in the absence of overt inflammation, constitutively maintain tissue macrophage/DC populations. Inflammatory monocytes respond rapidly to microbial stimuli by secreting cytokines and antimicrobial factors, express the CCR2 chemokine receptor, and traffic to sites of microbial infection in response to monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (CCL2) secretion. In murine models, CCR2-mediated monocyte recruitment is essential for defense against Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans infection, implicating inflammatory monocytes in defense against bacterial, protozoal, and fungal pathogens. Recent studies indicate that inflammatory monocyte recruitment to sites of infection is complex, involving CCR2-mediated emigration of monocytes from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, followed by trafficking into infected tissues. The in vivo mechanisms that promote chemokine secretion, monocyte differentiation and trafficking, and finally monocyte-mediated microbial killing remain active and important areas of investigation.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Virology
                JVI
                American Society for Microbiology
                0022-538X
                1098-5514
                February 01 2010
                February 01 2010
                November 11 2009
                : 84
                : 3
                : 1289-1301
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
                [2 ] Infectious Disease Pathology Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333
                Article
                10.1128/JVI.01281-09
                2812346
                19906920
                © 2009
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://JVI.asm.org/content/84/3/1289

                Comments

                Comment on this article