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      Parasellar Meningiomas

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          Abstract

          Parasellar spaces remain particularly singular, comprising the most important neurovascular structures such as the internal carotid artery and optic, oculomotor, and trigeminal nerves. Meningiomas are one of the most frequent tumors arising from parasellar spaces. In this location, meningiomas remain mostly benign tumors with WHO grade I and a meningothelial subtype. Progestin intake should be investigated and leads mostly to conservative strategies. In the case of benign nonsymptomatic tumors, observation should be proposed. Tumor growth will lead to the proposition of surgery or radiosurgery. In the case of an uncertain diagnosis and an aggressive pattern, a precise diagnosis is required. For cavernous sinus and Meckel’s cave lesions, complete removal is rarely considered, leading to the proposition of an endoscopic endonasal or transcranial biopsy. Optic nerve decompression could also be proposed via these approaches. A case-by-case discussion about the best approach is recommended. A transcranial approach remains necessary for tumor removal in most cases. Vascular injury could lead to severe complications. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, venous sacrifice, visual impairment, and cranial nerve palsies are more frequent complications. Pituitary dysfunctions are rare in preoperative assessment and in postoperative follow-up but should be assessed in the case of meningiomas located close to the pituitary axis. Long-term follow-up is required given the frequent incomplete tumor removal and the risk of delayed recurrence. Radiosurgery is relevant for small and well-limited meningiomas or intra-cavernous sinus postoperative residue, whereas radiation therapy and proton beam therapy are indicated for large, extended, nonoperable meningiomas. The place of the peptide receptor radionuclide therapyneeds to be defined. Targeted therapy should be considered in rare, recurrent, and aggressive parasellar meningiomas.

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          Most cited references 121

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          The recurrence of intracranial meningiomas after surgical treatment.

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            Genomic analysis of non-NF2 meningiomas reveals mutations in TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, and SMO.

            We report genomic analysis of 300 meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumors, leading to the discovery of mutations in TRAF7, a proapoptotic E3 ubiquitin ligase, in nearly one-fourth of all meningiomas. Mutations in TRAF7 commonly occurred with a recurrent mutation (K409Q) in KLF4, a transcription factor known for its role in inducing pluripotency, or with AKT1(E17K), a mutation known to activate the PI3K pathway. SMO mutations, which activate Hedgehog signaling, were identified in ~5% of non-NF2 mutant meningiomas. These non-NF2 meningiomas were clinically distinctive-nearly always benign, with chromosomal stability, and originating from the medial skull base. In contrast, meningiomas with mutant NF2 and/or chromosome 22 loss were more likely to be atypical, showing genomic instability, and localizing to the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Collectively, these findings identify distinct meningioma subtypes, suggesting avenues for targeted therapeutics.
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              Recurrent somatic mutations in POLR2A define a distinct subset of meningiomas

              RNA polymerase II mediates the transcription of all protein-coding genes in eukaryotic cells, a process that is fundamental to life. Genomic mutations altering this enzyme have not previously been linked to any pathology in humans, which is a testament to its indispensable role in cell biology. On the basis of a combination of next-generation genomic analyses of 775 meningiomas, we report that recurrent somatic p.Gln403Lys or p.Leu438_His439del mutations in POLR2A, which encodes the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II (ref. 1), hijack this essential enzyme and drive neoplasia. POLR2A mutant tumors show dysregulation of key meningeal identity genes, including WNT6 and ZIC1/ZIC4. In addition to mutations in POLR2A, NF2, SMARCB1, TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, PIK3CA, and SMO, we also report somatic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R1, PRKAR1A, and SUFU in meningiomas. Our results identify a role for essential transcriptional machinery in driving tumorigenesis and define mutually exclusive meningioma subgroups with distinct clinical and pathological features.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-318-06848-1
                978-3-318-06849-8
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2020
                August 2020
                03 June 2020
                : 110
                : 9-10
                : 780-796
                Affiliations
                aNeurosurgery Department, Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, CHU Timone, Marseille, France
                bAix-Marseille University, INSERM, MMG, Marseille, France
                cGamma Knife Unit, Functional and Stereotactic Department, Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, CHU Timone, Marseille, France
                dMolecular Biology Department, Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, CHU Timone, Marseille, France
                eEndocrinology Department, Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, CHU Conception, Marseille, France
                fDepartment of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Thomas Graillon, Neurosurgery Department, La Timone Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 Rue Saint Pierre, FR–13005 Marseille (France), Thomas.Graillon@ap-hm.fr
                Article
                509090 Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:780–796
                10.1159/000509090
                32492684
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Pages: 17
                Categories
                At the Cutting Edge

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