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      Treatment seeking for problematic pornography use among women

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Previous studies examined psychological factors related to treatment seeking for problematic pornography use (PU) among males. In this study, we focused on females who seek treatment for problematic PU and compared them with non-problematic pornography users with regard to variables related to problematic PU. Second, we investigated the relationships between critical constructs related to problematic PU with the path analysis method, emphasizing the predictors for treatment seeking among women. We also compared our results with previous studies on males.

          Methods

          A survey study was conducted on 719 Polish-speaking Caucasian females, 14–63 years old, including 39 treatment seekers for problematic PU.

          Results

          The positive relationship between the mere amount of PU and treatment seeking loses its significance after introducing two other predictors of treatment-seeking: religiosity and negative symptoms associated with PU. This pattern is different from the results obtained in previous studies on males.

          Discussion

          Different from previous studies on male samples, our analysis showed that in the case of women, mere amount of PU may be related to treatment-seeking behavior even after accounting for negative symptoms associated with PU. Moreover, religiousness is a significant predictor of treatment seeking among women, which may indicate that in the case of women, treatment seeking for problematic PU is motivated not only by experienced negative symptoms of PU but also by personal beliefs about PU and social norms.

          Conclusion

          For females, negative symptoms associated with PU, the amount of PU and religiosity is associated with treatment seeking. Those factors should be considered in treatment.

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          Most cited references72

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          Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation.

          The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies. ER instructions were coded according to a new taxonomy, and meta-analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy across studies. The findings revealed differences in effectiveness between ER processes: Attentional deployment had no effect on emotional outcomes (d(+) = 0.00), response modulation had a small effect (d(+) = 0.16), and cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect (d(+) = 0.36). There were also important within-process differences. We identified 7 types of attentional deployment, 4 types of cognitive change, and 4 types of response modulation, and these distinctions had a substantial influence on effectiveness. Whereas distraction was an effective way to regulate emotions (d(+) = 0.27), concentration was not (d(+) = -0.26). Similarly, suppressing the expression of emotion proved effective (d(+) = 0.32), but suppressing the experience of emotion or suppressing thoughts of the emotion-eliciting event did not (d(+) = -0.04 and -0.12, respectively). Finally, reappraising the emotional response proved less effective (d(+) = 0.23) than reappraising the emotional stimulus (d(+) = 0.36) or using perspective taking (d(+) = 0.45). The review also identified several moderators of strategy effectiveness including factors related to the (a) to-be-regulated emotion, (b) frequency of use and intended purpose of the ER strategy, (c) study design, and (d) study characteristics.
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            Hypersexual disorder: a proposed diagnosis for DSM-V.

            Hypersexual Disorder is proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for consideration in the Sexual Disorders section for DSM-V. Historical precedents describing hypersexual behaviors as well as the antecedent representations and proposals for inclusion of such a condition in the previous DSM manuals are reviewed. Epidemiological as well as clinical evidence is presented suggesting that non-paraphilic "excesses" of sexual behavior (i.e., hypersexual behaviors and disorders) can be accompanied by both clinically significant personal distress and social and medical morbidity. The research literature describing comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and a purported relationship between Axis I disorders and Hypersexual Disorder is discussed. Based on an extensive review of the literature, Hypersexual Disorder is conceptualized as primarily a nonparaphilic sexual desire disorder with an impulsivity component. Specific polythetic diagnostic criteria, as well as behavioral specifiers, are proposed, intended to integrate empirically based contributions from various putative pathophysiological perspectives, including dysregulation of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction, and sexual compulsivity.
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              Gender differences in erotic plasticity: the female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive.

              Responding to controversies about the balance between nature and culture in determining human sexuality, the author proposes that the female sex drive is more malleable than the male in response to sociocultural and situational factors. A large assortment of evidence supports 3 predictions based on the hypothesis of female erotic plasticity: (a) Individual women will exhibit more variation across time than men in sexual behavior, (b) female sexuality will exhibit larger effects than male in response to most specific sociocultural variables, and (c) sexual attitude-behavior consistency will be lower for women than men. Several possible explanations for female erotic plasticity are reviewed, including adaptation to superior male political and physical power, the centrality of female change (from no to yes) as a prerequisite for intercourse, and the idea that women have a milder sex drive than men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                16 October 2017
                December 2017
                : 6
                : 4
                : 445-456
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychology, University of Warsaw , Warsaw, Poland
                [ 2 ]Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management , Warsaw, Poland
                [ 3 ] Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences , Warsaw, Poland
                [ 4 ]Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego , San Diego, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Mateusz Gola, PhD; Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093 0559, USA; Phone/Fax: +1 858 500 2554; Office phone: +1 858 822 7543; E-mail: mgola@ 123456ucsd.edu
                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.063
                6034965
                29034717
                29156600-d69e-43a7-b006-ad7b2403c8c0
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 07 February 2017
                : 03 July 2017
                : 30 August 2017
                : 18 September 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 73, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funding sources: This study was supported by the National Science Centre of Poland OPUS grant, 2014/15/B/HS6/03792 (MG). Dr. MG was also supported by the Polish Ministry of Science grant Mobility Plus (1057/MOB/2013/0). National Science Centre of Poland and Polish Ministry of Science had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
                Categories
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                treatment seeking,hypersexual behavior,pornography,problematic sexual behavior,gender differences,psychotherapy

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