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      Alcohol-induced severe acute pancreatitis followed by hemolytic uremic syndrome managed with continuous renal replacement therapy

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          Abstract

          Background

          Acute kidney injury in patients with acute pancreatitis carries a poor prognosis. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney, and though rare in adults it is associated with high mortality and a high rate of chronic renal failure.

          Case presentation

          Herein, we report a case of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis in a 38-year-old Chinese female complicated by HUS. Her renal function progressively deteriorated in 2 days, and daily continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was thus performed for a total of 13 treatments. She also received intermittent transfusions of fresh frozen plasma. Her renal failure was successfully managed, with subsequent return of normal renal function. She was discharged 1 month after admission and follow-up at 3 months revealed normal urea and creatinine.

          Conclusion

          CRRT was shown to be useful for the treatment of HUS following acute pancreatitis. Prior case reports and our case should remind clinicians that HUS is a possible complication of acute pancreatitis. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of CRRT to prevent mortality and improve outcomes.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Various clinical manifestations in patients with thrombotic microangiopathy.

          Thrombotic microangiopathy (TM) is characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia in association with diffuse microthrombi in the arteriolar capillaries of various organs. Its clinical manifestation is protean, and a few well-defined clinical syndromes have been recognized. A clear understanding of the consequence of TM is needed to appreciate the unusual clinical syndromes due to atypical presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The medical records of patients with known diagnoses of TTP, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and the syndrome in which hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count are found in association with pregnancy were examined retrospectively from 1981 to 1994 and prospectively from 1995 to 2000. Various thrombotic microangiopathic presentations were identified in these patients. Their response to exchange plasmapheresis was evaluated, and their clinical outcome was determined. A total of 74 patients were diagnosed with TM. Among these patients, several well-defined thrombotic microangiopathic presentations were identified. These presentations included TTP in 57 patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 13 patients, HUS in 9 patients, the syndrome in which hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count are found in association with pregnancy in 9 patients, peripheral digit ischemic syndrome (PDIS) in 6 patients, pancreatitis in 3 patients, hepatitis in 3 patients, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) in 2 patients. Exchange plasmapheresis was an effective treatment, with a response rate of 79%. A poor prognosis was evident when ARDS was present, with an overall survival rate of 46%. Traditionally, TTP and HUS are considered the main entities of TM. It is evident that other manifestations of TM, if unrecognized in a timely fashion, can lead to fatality. The understanding of the pathophysiologic consequences of TM and the recognition of its atypical presentations are essential to achieve favorable outcomes in patients with this life-threatening disease.
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            Adult haemolytic and uraemic syndrome: causes and prognostic factors in the last decade.

            Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a rare and severe disease of various aetiologies in adults. The effect of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion in adults suffering from HUS is not well defined. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the causes of HUS in adults admitted in a single renal intensive care unit (ICU) and to determine the life and renal prognosis factors, while most patients (78%) received FFP infusion. We recorded clinical, biological, and histological data of 55 adults admitted in our renal ICU for HUS between 1990 and 1998, 49 of them having had a renal biopsy. By stepwise logistic regression analysis, we examined the parameters that were associated with the in-hospital mortality and renal function at discharge. HUS complicated different diseases in 40 patients (HIV infection n=18, nephropathies n=10, allotransplantation n=7, malignant diseases n=5) and appeared as a primary in 15 patients. Factors influencing the in-hospital mortality were positive HIV serology (odds ratio (OR) >20, P=0.0002) and requirement for haemodialysis (OR >35, P=0.004). A pre-existing nephropathy was a bad prognosis factor for renal function (OR >99, P=0.02), while fever was associated with better renal prognosis (OR=1/10, P=0.033). HUS in adults remains a severe disease, with a high mortality rate in HIV patients and in those who required haemodialysis. However, as compared with previous studies, we observed an improvement in renal outcome, particularly in patients with primary HUS, suggesting a beneficial effect of FFP infusion, at least in these forms.
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              Rapid and complete resolution of chemotherapy-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS) with rituximab.

              Gemcitabine-induced thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS) is a well described, albeit rare, complication, which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Treatment with standard TTP/HUS therapies such as plasma exchange, and cessation of gemcitabine is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this report is to describe the successful treatment of gemcitabine-induced TTP/HUS with rituximab, a CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been used for the treatment of refractory idiopathic TTP/HUS. We describe the clinical course and follow-up of a patient who developed gemcitabine-induced TTP/HUS, did not respond to cessation of gemcitabine, administration of plasma exchanges, and intravenous glucocorticoids, but responded to rituximab. TTP/HUS responded rapidly and resolved completely with two courses (8 doses) of intravenous rituximab. In three of four reported cases (including the current report), rituximab was rapidly effective in resolving chemotherapy-induced TTP/HUS that was refractory to plasma exchanges and glucocorticoids. Rituximab may be indicated for early treatment of chemotherapy-induced TTP/HUS, particularly when plasma exchange is not rapidly effective.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2369
                2014
                6 January 2014
                : 15
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Alley 578, Xiangyin Road, Wujiaochang Town, 200433 Shanghai, China
                Article
                1471-2369-15-1
                10.1186/1471-2369-15-1
                3884003
                24386889
                Copyright © 2014 Fu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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