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      Fish fauna from the Paranapanema River basin, Brazil Translated title: Fauna de peixes da bacia do rio Paranapanema, Brasil

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          Abstract

          Abstract: The Paranapanema River is an important, extensively explored tributary of the Upper Paraná River basin. The fish fauna of the Paranapanema River has been investigated since the 1990s; however, no study has characterized the richness of fish species throughout the basin, including the main channel of the river, marginal lagoons, its tributaries, and sub-tributaries. Thus, we performed a review with 90 independent studies conducted at the upper, middle, and lower sections of the basin. We recorded 225 species, of which 165 were native, and 60 were non-native. We found that 77% of the species within the basin are composed by Siluriformes and Characiformes. Cichliformes had a significant number of non-native species established in impoundment sections of the basin. Incidence-Based Estimators (Bootstrap and Chao 2) demonstrated that the richness of native species is still underestimated. Some native (e.g., Hypostomus ancistroides) and non-native species (e.g., Plagioscion squamosissimus) are widely distributed in the basin, while others had a more restricted distribution. Among the registered species, the family Bryconidae had the highest number of representatives with threatened conservation status. In addition, we observed that the Capivara Reservoir and its tributaries were the most sampled regions, with the majority of studies performed in the Lower Paranapanema basin. The species richness recorded in large tributaries, such as Tibagi, Cinzas, Congonhas, and Pirapó rivers is critical for maintaining the fish fauna in the Paranapanema River. Our contribution may be used to support management actions and conservation strategies, as well as to indicate regions in the basin that need to be better inventoried.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: O rio Paranapanema é um importante tributário, amplamente explorado da bacia do Alto rio Paraná. A fauna de peixes do rio Paranapanema vem sendo investigada desde a década de 1990; no entanto, nenhum estudo caracterizou a riqueza de espécies de peixes em toda a bacia, incluindo o canal principal do rio, lagoas marginais, seus tributários e sub-tributários. Assim, realizamos uma revisão com 90 estudos independentes conduzidos nas regiões superior, média e inferior da bacia. Foram registradas 225 espécies, das quais 165 eram nativas e 60 eram não nativas. Verificamos que 77% das espécies dentro da bacia são compostas por Siluriformes e Characiformes. Cichliformes apresentou um número significativo de espécies não nativas estabelecidas em áreas de represamento da bacia. Estimadores de riqueza baseados em incidência (Bootstrap e Chao 2) demonstraram que a riqueza de espécies nativas ainda é subestimada. Algumas espécies nativas (e.g., Hypostomus ancistroides) e não nativas (e.g., Plagioscion squamosissimus) estão amplamente distribuídas na bacia, enquanto outras tem sua distribuição mais restrita. Entre as espécies registradas, a família Bryconidae obteve o maior número de representantes com status de conservação ameaçado. Além disso, observamos que o reservatório de Capivara e seus afluentes foram as regiões mais amostradas, sendo a maioria dos estudos realizados na bacia do baixo Paranapanema. A riqueza de espécies registrada em grandes afluentes, como os rios Tibagi, Cinzas, Congonhas e Pirapó, é fundamental para a manutenção da ictiofauna no rio Paranapanema. Nossa contribuição pode ser usada para apoiar ações de manejo e estratégias de conservação, bem como para indicar regiões na bacia que precisam ser melhor inventariadas.

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          Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

          The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21st century, and deserves attention from conservationists and policy makers.
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            Nonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population.

             A. CHAO,  A Chao,  Chao (1984)
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              Nonparametric Estimation of Species Richness

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Journal
                bn
                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1676-0611
                2020
                : 20
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Ourinhos SP orgnameCentro Universitário das Faculdades Integradas de Ourinhos Brasil
                Londrina Paraná orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Londrina orgdiv1Laboratório de Genética e Ecologia Animal Brazil
                Londrina Paraná orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Londrina orgdiv1Laboratório de Ecologia e Comportamento Animal Brazil
                São Paulo SP orgnameCTG Brasil Brasil
                Londrina Paraná orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Londrina orgdiv1Laboratório de Ecologia de Peixes e Invasões Biológicas Brazil
                Londrina Paraná orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Londrina orgdiv1Museu de Zoologia Brazil
                Article
                S1676-06032020000100201
                10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2018-0707

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 145, Pages: 0
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