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      Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients.

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          Abstract

          Delirium is a common mental disorder, which is distressing and has serious adverse outcomes in hospitalised patients. Prevention of delirium is desirable from the perspective of patients and carers, and healthcare providers. It is currently unclear, however, whether interventions for preventing delirium are effective.

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          Most cited references132

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          Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

          Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment in hospital for older adults admitted as an emergency. Search strategy We searched the EPOC Register, Cochrane’s Controlled Trials Register, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AARP Ageline, and handsearched high yield journals. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of comprehensive geriatric assessment (whether by mobile teams or in designated wards) compared with usual care. Comprehensive geriatric assessment is a multidimensional interdisciplinary diagnostic process used to determine the medical, psychological, and functional capabilities of a frail elderly person to develop a coordinated and integrated plan for treatment and long term follow-up. Data collection and analysis Three independent reviewers assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted published data. Two additional reviewers moderated. Results Twenty two trials evaluating 10 315 participants in six countries were identified. For the primary outcome “living at home,” patients who underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment were more likely to be alive and in their own homes at the end of scheduled follow-up (odds ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.28; P=0.003; number needed to treat 33) at a median follow-up of 12 months versus 1.25 (1.11 to 1.42; P<0.001; number needed to treat 17) at a median follow-up of six months) compared with patients who received general medical care. In addition, patients were less likely to be living in residential care (0.78, 0.69 to 0.88; P<0.001). Subgroup interaction suggested differences between the subgroups “wards” and “teams” in favour of wards. Patients were also less likely to die or experience deterioration (0.76, 0.64 to 0.90; P=0.001) and were more likely to experience improved cognition (standardised mean difference 0.08, 0.01 to 0.15; P=0.02) in the comprehensive geriatric assessment group. Conclusions Comprehensive geriatric assessment increases patients’ likelihood of being alive and in their own homes after an emergency admission to hospital. This seems to be especially true for trials of wards designated for comprehensive geriatric assessment and is associated with a potential cost reduction compared with general medical care.
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            Costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated patients.

            To determine the costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients. Prospective cohort study. A tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were 275 consecutive mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients. We prospectively examined patients for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Delirium was categorized as "ever vs. never" and by a cumulative delirium severity index. Costs were determined from individual ledger-level patient charges using cost-center-specific cost-to-charge ratios and were reported in year 2001 U.S. dollars. Fifty-one of 275 patients (18.5%) had persistent coma and died in the hospital and were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 224 patients, delirium developed in 183 (81.7%) and lasted a median of 2.1 (interquartile range, 1-3) days. Baseline demographics were similar between those with and without delirium. Intensive care unit costs (median, interquartile range) were significantly higher for those with at least one episode of delirium ($22,346, $15,083-$35,521) vs. those with no delirium ($13,332, $8,837-$21,471, p <.001). Total hospital costs were also higher in those who developed delirium ($41,836, $22,782-$68,134 vs. $27,106, $13,875-$37,419, p =.002). Higher severity and duration of delirium were associated with incrementally greater costs (all p <.001). After adjustment for age, comorbidity, severity of illness, degree of organ dysfunction, nosocomial infection, hospital mortality, and other potential confounders, delirium was associated with 39% higher intensive care unit (95% confidence interval, 12-72%) and 31% higher hospital (95% confidence interval, 1-70%) costs. Delirium is a common clinical event in mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients and is associated with significantly higher intensive care unit and hospital costs. Future efforts to prevent or treat intensive care unit delirium have the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs of care.
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              Postoperative delirium in the elderly: risk factors and outcomes.

              The purpose of this study was to describe the natural history, identify risk factors, and determine outcomes for the development of postoperative delirium in the elderly. Postoperative delirium is a common and deleterious complication in geriatric patients. Subjects older than 50 years scheduled for an operation requiring a postoperative intensive care unit admission were recruited. After preoperative informed written consent, enrolled subjects had baseline cognitive and functional assessments. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed daily for delirium using the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit. Patients were also followed for outcomes. During the study period, 144 patients were enrolled before major abdominal (40%), thoracic (53%), or vascular (7%) operations. The overall incidence of delirium was 44% (64/144). The average time to onset of delirium was 2.1 +/- 0.9 days and the mean duration of delirium was 4.0 +/- 5.1 days. Several preoperative variables were associated with an increased risk of delirium including older age (P < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.001), impaired functional status (P < 0.001), pre-existing dementia (P < 0.001), and pre-existing comorbidities (P < 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, pre-existing dementia remains the strongest risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. Worse outcomes, including increased length of stay (P < 0.001), postdischarge institutionalization (P < 0.001), and 6 month mortality (P = 0.001), occurred in subjects who developed delirium. In the current study, delirium occurred in 44% of elderly patients after a major operation. Pre-existing cognitive dysfunction was the strongest predictor of the development of postoperative delirium. Outcomes, including an increased rate of 6 month mortality, were worse in patients who developed postoperative delirium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cochrane Database Syst Rev
                The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
                Wiley-Blackwell
                1469-493X
                1361-6137
                Mar 11 2016
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, North Yorkshire, UK, Y010 5DD.
                Article
                10.1002/14651858.CD005563.pub3
                26967259
                2922b725-d8fc-4808-b953-0ce6766a3d8b

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