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      Mediating effects of rumination and bedtime procrastination on the relationship between Internet addiction and poor sleep quality

      1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , * , , 3 , * ,
      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      Internet addiction, poor sleep quality, rumination, bedtime procrastination

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          Background and aims

          Numerous studies have shown that people who have Internet addiction (IA) are more likely to experience poor sleep quality than people who do not. However, few studies have explored mechanisms underlying the relation between IA and poor sleep quality. As a first attempt to address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional design was applied, and structural equation modeling was used to explore the direct relationship between IA and poor sleep quality, as well as the potential mediating roles of rumination and bedtime procrastination.


          A convenience sample, consisting of 1,104 Chinese University students (696 females or 63%), completed an online survey that included the following measures: Young’s 8-item Internet Addiction Diagnosis Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Ruminative Responses Scale, and the Bedtime Procrastination Scale.


          While the direct path between IA and poor sleep quality was not found to be significant, rumination and bedtime procrastination were each shown to separately mediate the predictive effect of IA on poor sleep quality. However, the greatest level of support was found for the sequential mediating effects of rumination and bedtime procrastination between IA and poor sleep quality.


          While rumination and bedtime procrastination were both shown to be important independent mediators for the relation between IA and poor sleep quality, their combined effect was as great as either alone.

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          Most cited references78

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          The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

          Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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            A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use

            R.A. Davis (2001)
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              Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder


                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                31 December 2020
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 9
                : 4
                : 1002-1010
                [1 ]Department of Social Work, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, 430070, China
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, Wuhan Sports University , Wuhan 430079, China
                [3 ]Department of Psychology, University of Memphis , Memphis, TN 38152, USA
                Author notes
                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 05 July 2020
                : 04 November 2020
                : 06 December 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 79, Pages: 09
                Full-Length Report

                internet addiction,poor sleep quality,rumination,bedtime procrastination


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