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      Renal Tubular Drug Transporters

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          Abstract

          The kidney plays an important role in the elimination of numerous hydrophilic xenobiotics, including drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds. It has developed high-capacity transport systems to prevent urinary loss of filtered nutrients, as well as electrolytes, and simultaneously to facilitate tubular secretion of a wide range of organic ions. Transport systems for organic anions and cations are primarily involved in the secretion of drugs in renal tubules. The identification and characterization of organic anion and cation transporters have been progressing at the molecular level. To date, many members of the organic anion transporter, organic cation transporter, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide families have been found to mediate the transport of diverse organic ions. It has also been suggested that ATP-dependent primary active transporters such as MDR1/P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein family function as efflux pumps of renal tubular cells for more hydrophobic molecules and anionic conjugates. Tubular reabsorption of peptide-like drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics across the brush-border membranes appears to be mediated by two distinct H<sup>+</sup>/peptide cotransporters: PEPT1 and PEPT2. Renal disposition of drugs occurs through interaction with these diverse secretory and absorptive transporters in renal tubules. Studies of the functional characteristics, such as substrate specificity and transport mechanisms, and of the localization of drug transporters could provide information regarding the cellular network involved in renal handling of drugs. Detailed information concerning molecular and cellular aspects of drug transporters expressed in the kidney has facilitated studies of the mechanisms underlying renal disposition as well as transporter-mediated drug interactions.

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          Most cited references 75

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          Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection.

           L Schriml,  G Barsh,  K. Sato (2001)
          The RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopaedia Project, a systematic approach to determining the full coding potential of the mouse genome, involves collection and sequencing of full-length complementary DNAs and physical mapping of the corresponding genes to the mouse genome. We organized an international functional annotation meeting (FANTOM) to annotate the first 21,076 cDNAs to be analysed in this project. Here we describe the first RIKEN clone collection, which is one of the largest described for any organism. Analysis of these cDNAs extends known gene families and identifies new ones.
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            Cellular localization of the multidrug-resistance gene product P-glycoprotein in normal human tissues.

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              Mutations in ABCC6 cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

              Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue. PXE patients frequently experience visual field loss and skin lesions, and occasionally cardiovascular complications. Histopathological findings reveal calcification of the elastic fibres and abnormalities of the collagen fibrils. Most PXE patients are sporadic, but autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance are also observed. We previously localized the PXE gene to chromosome 16p13.1 (refs 8,9) and constructed a physical map. Here we describe homozygosity mapping in five PXE families and the detection of deletions or mutations in ABCC6 (formerly MRP6) associated with all genetic forms of PXE in seven patients or families.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2006
                June 2006
                22 June 2006
                : 103
                : 3
                : p97-p106
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bClinical Pharmacology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France
                Article
                92212 Nephron Physiol 2006;103:p97–p106
                10.1159/000092212
                16554667
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 143, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92212
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