+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Diagnosis and treatment of ASD in women in secure and forensic hospitals

      Advances in Autism

      Emerald Publishing

      Assessment, Diagnosis, Forensic, Autism spectrum disorder, Offending behaviour, Neurodevelopmental

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The purpose of this paper is to explore the experience and possibilities for misdiagnosis of women with ASD in secure and forensic hospitals, via the medium of a lived experience case study. To consider the clinical value of the patient perspective of and insight into their disorder. The case study is supplemented by relevant associations to the MHA Code of Practice, the CQC report, Monitoring the Mental Health Act (MHA) 2016–2017, published on 27 February 2018 and current research findings in the fields of service provision, quality of care and treatment of female patients with a diagnosis of ASD.


          A review and commentary of the author’s lived experience of a formal diagnostic assessment for ASD as a female patient in a secure and forensic hospital. In reviewing aspects of the author’s clinical assessment, the author has made contextual reference to the MHA Code of Practice, the CQC report, Monitoring the MHA 2016–2017, published on 27 February 2018, and current research findings. The account focuses on aspects of the author’s recent experience assessment and treatment for ASD which the author believes may be of use in informing clinical practice.


          Open-ended exploration of a lived experience account/case study of a diagnostic assessment of an adult female patient for ASD, demonstrating the possible ambiguity of responses to questionnaire-based assessment tools and other deficiencies inherent to the assessment process and care and treatment of adult female ASD sufferers in secure and forensic hospitals.

          Research limitations/implications

          The author uses the lived experience as a patient to review and provide commentary on the clinical assessment for ASD. This review is, therefore, informed by an authentic patient perspective and not clinical perspectives. This paper highlights the need for further research into the diagnostic assessment of females for ASD in a secure and forensic hospitals.

          Practical implications

          First, to encourage practitioners to extend their range of thinking to be more inclusive of the patient perspective when performing a diagnostic assessment. Second, to increase practitioner awareness of the deficiencies in the current service provision for adult female patients diagnosed with ASD in secure and forensic hospitals.

          Social implications

          To improve patient experience of diagnostic assessment for ASD and the quality of the assessment and patient outcomes in secure and forensic hospitals.


          The paper is original in concept in that it considers the inclusion of patient experience/views in assessment and formulation and links them to wider social policy and practice guidance. The case study is an authentic patient account informed by the author’s experience of secure and forensic psychiatric hospitals. The value of the paper may be determined by the extent to which the paper encourages practitioners to consider the patient perspective and experience of the diagnostic assessment and how this and subsequent care and treatment may affect the adult female patient in secure and forensic hospitals.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory.

          The mind-blindness theory of autism spectrum conditions has been successful in explaining the social and communication difficulties that characterize these conditions but cannot explain the nonsocial features (the narrow interests, need for sameness, and attention to detail). A new theory, the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory, is summarized, which argues two factors are needed to explain the social and nonsocial features of the condition. This is related to other cognitive theories such as the weak central coherence theory and the executive dysfunction theory. The E-S theory is also extended to the extreme male brain theory as a way of understanding the biased sex ratio in autism. Etiological predictions are discussed, as are the clinical applications arising from the E-S theory.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Is There a "Language of the Eyes"? Evidence from Normal Adults, and Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use


                Author and article information

                Advances in Autism
                Emerald Publishing
                12 March 2019
                : 5
                Issue : 1 Issue title : Women, girls, and autism spectrum disorders: part I Issue title : Women, girls, and autism: part I
                : 64-76
                School of Medical Education, King’s College London , London, UK
                Author notes
                Sarah Markham can be contacted at:
                618384 AIA-09-2018-0027.pdf AIA-09-2018-0027
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 13, Words: 6914
                case-report, Case study
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                cat-LID, Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata


                Comment on this article