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      Hydroxyapatite-polymer biocomposites for bone regeneration: A review of current trends : HYDROXYAPATITE/POLYMER BIOCOMPOSITES FOR BONE REGENERATION: A REVIEW

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          Abstract

          Bone tissue engineering has emerged as one of the most indispensable approaches to address bone trauma in the past few decades. This approach offers an efficient and a risk-free alternative to autografts and allografts by employing a combination of biomaterials and cells to promote bone regeneration. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a ceramic biomaterial that mimics the mineral composition of bones and teeth in vertebrates. HA, commonly produced via several synthetic routes over the years has been found to exhibit good bioactivity, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, the brittle nature of HA restricts its usage for load bearing applications. To address this problem, HA has been used in combination with several polymers in the form of biocomposite implants to primarily improve its mechanical properties and also enhance the implants' overall performance by simultaneously exploiting the positive effects of both HA and the polymer involved in making the biocomposite. This review article summarizes the past and recent developments in the evolution of HA-polymer biocomposite implants as an "ideal" biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 2046-2057, 2018.

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          Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials

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            Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices.

            Polymer scientists, working closely with those in the device and medical fields, have made tremendous advances over the past 30 years in the use of synthetic materials in the body. In this article we will focus on properties of biodegradable polymers which make them ideally suited for orthopedic applications where a permanent implant is not desired. The materials with the greatest history of use are the poly(lactides) and poly(glycolides), and these will be covered in specific detail. The chemistry of the polymers, including synthesis and degradation, the tailoring of properties by proper synthetic controls such as copolymer composition, special requirements for processing and handling, and mechanisms of biodegradation will be covered. An overview of biocompatibility and approved devices of particular interest in orthopedics are also covered.
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              Bone substitutes: an update.

              Autograft is considered ideal for grafting procedures, providing osteoinductive growth factors, osteogenic cells, and an osteoconductive scaffold. Limitations, however, exist regarding donor site morbidity and graft availability. Allograft on the other hand, posses the risk of disease transmission. Synthetic graft substitutes lack osteoinductive or osteogenic properties. Composite grafts combine scaffolding properties with biological elements to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation and eventually osteogenesis. We present here an overview of bone grafts and graft substitutes available for clinical applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials
                J. Biomed. Mater. Res.
                Wiley
                15524973
                July 2018
                July 2018
                June 26 2017
                : 106
                : 5
                : 2046-2057
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anatomy; School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago; Dunedin 9054 New Zealand
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry; University of Otago; Dunedin 9054 New Zealand
                Article
                10.1002/jbm.b.33950
                28650094
                © 2017

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