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      Coffee Consumption and Oxidative Stress: A Review of Human Intervention Studies

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          Abstract

          Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes) against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake) have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.

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          Most cited references50

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          Bioavailability, bioactivity and impact on health of dietary flavonoids and related compounds: an update.

          There is substantial interest in the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective dietary agents. In particular, the involvement of flavonoids and related compounds has become a major topic in human nutrition research. Evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies is emerging regarding the protective effects of various (poly)phenol-rich foods against several chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, the use of HPLC-MS for the analysis of flavonoids and related compounds in foods and biological samples has significantly enhanced our understanding of (poly)phenol bioavailability. These advancements have also led to improvements in the available food composition and metabolomic databases, and consequently in the development of biomarkers of (poly)phenol intake to use in epidemiological studies. Efforts to create adequate standardised materials and well-matched controls to use in randomised controlled trials have also improved the quality of the available data. In vitro investigations using physiologically achievable concentrations of (poly)phenol metabolites and catabolites with appropriate model test systems have provided new and interesting insights on potential mechanisms of actions. This article will summarise recent findings on the bioavailability and biological activity of (poly)phenols, focusing on the epidemiological and clinical evidence of beneficial effects of flavonoids and related compounds on urinary tract infections, cognitive function and age-related cognitive decline, cancer and cardiovascular disease.
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            Phenolic compounds in coffee

            Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites generally involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress conditions. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). These compounds have a number of beneficial health properties related to their potent antioxidant activity as well as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and antiviral activities. The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. During coffee processing, CGA may be isomerized, hydrolyzed or degraded into low molecular weight compounds. The high temperatures of roasting also produce transformation of part of CGA into quinolactones and, along with other compounds, melanoidins. This review focuses on the chemical characteristics, biosynthesis, and distribution of CGA and related compounds in coffee. The influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors as well as processing on the chemical composition of coffee beans is discussed. The impact of CGA composition of green coffee on cup quality is also approached. Despite the existence of substantial published information on the total levels of CGA in coffee, more research is needed on the composition of minor phenolic compounds and specific CGA isomers (and related substances) in green and roasted coffee beans, as well as their impact on coffee quality.
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              Direct enzymic detection of endogenous oxidative base damage in human lymphocyte DNA.

              The endogenous production of oxidative damage in DNA by free radicals released as a by-product of respiration is a likely cause of mutations which, if they occur in appropriate genes, may lead to cancer. Using an endonuclease specific for oxidized pyrimidines, in conjunction with the highly sensitive method of single cell gel electrophoresis, we have detected significant oxidative damage in untreated, freshly isolated lymphocytes from normal, healthy individuals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                28 July 2016
                August 2016
                : 21
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]LS9 Interlab Group, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Medical School Building C, Via Volturno 39, 43125 Parma, Italy; daniela.martini@ 123456unipr.it (D.M.); michele.tassotti@ 123456studenti.unipr.it (M.T.); daniele.delrio@ 123456unipr.it (D.D.R.); furio.brighenti@ 123456unipr.it (F.B.)
                [2 ]Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy; patrizia.riso@ 123456unimi.it (P.R.); marisa.porrini@ 123456unimi.it (M.P.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cristian.delbo@ 123456unimi.it ; Tel.: +39-02-503-16727; Fax: +39-02-503-16721
                Article
                molecules-21-00979
                10.3390/molecules21080979
                6274123
                27483219
                29548a57-f8c9-4369-90c0-e34619bbd9e5
                © 2016 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                coffee,phenols,dna damage,lipid damage,protein damage,antioxidant capacity,antioxidant enzymes

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