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      Exercise training of dogs with myxomatous valve disease Translated title: Treinamento físico de cães com doença mixomatosa valvar

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT The present study has the objective of evaluating the effects of exercise training, using moderate intensity walking (60 to 80% of maximum heart rate), from 30 to 50 minutes, three times a week, in alternate days, during eight weeks, on heart rate variability in dogs with myxomatous valve disease (MVD). For that, 20 dogs in stages B1 (1), B2 (14) and C2 (5) of MVD (ACVIM classification) were divided into untrained control group (CG, n=9) and training group (TG, n=11), and assessed at baseline (T0), after four (T1) and eight weeks (T2). Only one B1 and five B2 dogs completed the training program. In the time domain, the rMSSD was greater in TG in T1 (155,5+42,07) and T2 (199,8+83,54) than CG (T1:91,17+35,79 and T2:88,17+57,51). In the frequency domain, the variable High Frequency (HF) increased in TG in T1 (30950+25810) and T2 (40300+33870) when compared to the CG (T1:19090+23210 and T2:18810+22200) and within the group TG in T2 in relation to T0 (29340+20950). The proposed walking protocol is concluded to have increased the rMSSD and HF variables in TG, representing an increase of the parasympathetic tonus, justifying the indication of this therapy in B1 and B2 stages of MVD.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do treinamento físico, utilizando-se a caminhada de moderada intensidade (60 a 80% da frequência cardíaca máxima), por 30 a 50 minutos, três vezes por semana, em dias alternados, durante oito semanas, sobre a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em cães com degeneração mixomatosa valvar (DMV). Para tanto, 20 cães nos estágios B1 (1), B2 (14) e C2 (5) da DMV (classificação ACVIM) foram divididos em grupo controle não treinado (GC, n=9) e grupo treinamento (GT, n=11) e avaliados no início do estudo (T0), após quatro (T1) e oito semanas (T2). Apenas um cão B1 e cinco B2 completaram o programa de treinamento. No domínio do tempo, a variável rMSSD foi maior no GT em T1 (155,5+42,07) e T2 (199,8+83,54) que o GC (T1:91,17+35,79 e T2:88,17+57,51). No domínio da frequência, a variável High Frequency (HF) aumentou no GT em T1 (30950+25810) e T2 (40300+33870) comparada à do GC (T1:19090+23210 e T2:18810+22200), e dentro do GT no T2 em relação ao T0 (29340+20950). Dessa forma, conclui-se que o protocolo de treinamento proposto aumentou as variáveis rMSSD e HF no GT, representando aumento do tônus parassimpático, o que fundamenta a indicação dessa terapia nos estágios B1 e B2 da DMV.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Heart rate variability: a noninvasive electrocardiographic method to measure the autonomic nervous system.

           Juan Sztajzel (2004)
          The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role not only in physiological situations, but also in various pathological settings such as diabetic neuropathy, myocardial infarction (MI) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Autonomic imbalance associating increased sympathetic activity and reduced vagal tone has been been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Among the different available noninvasive techniques for assessing the autonomic status heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a simple, noninvasive method to evaluate the sympathovagal balance at the sinoatrial level. It has been used in a variety of clinical situations including diabetic neuropathy, MI, sudden death and CHF. The standard measurements intervening in the analysis of HRV comprise time domain indices, geometric methods and components of the frequency domain. Measurements of HRV are generally performed on the basis of 24 hour Holter recordings (long-term recordings) or on shorter periods ranging from 0.5 to 5 minutes (short-term recordings). The use of long or short-term recordings depends on the type of study that has to be realised. Established clinical data based on numerous studies published during the last decade consider decreased global HRV as a strong predictor of increased all-cause cardiac and/or arrhythmic mortality, particularly in patients at risk after MI or with CHF. This article reviews the mechanism, the parameters and the use of HRV as a marker reflecting the activity of the sympathetic and vagal components of the ANS on the sinus node, and as a clinical tool for screening and identifying patients particularly at risk for cardiac mortality.
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            Moderate-intensity resistance exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure improves strength, endurance, heart rate variability, and forearm blood flow.

            Resistance exercise training was applied to patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) on the basis that it may partly reverse deficiencies in skeletal muscle strength and endurance, aerobic power (VO(2peak)), heart rate variability (HRV), and forearm blood flow (FBF) that are all putative factors in the syndrome. Thirty-nine CHF patients (New York Heart Association Functional Class=2.3+/-0.5; left ventricular ejection fraction 28%+/-7%; age 65+/-11 years; 33:6 male:female) underwent 2 identical series of tests, 1 week apart, for strength and endurance of the knee and elbow extensors and flexors, VO(2peak), HRV, FBF at rest, and FBF activated by forearm exercise or limb ischemia. Patients were then randomized to 3 months of resistance training (EX, n=19), consisting of mainly isokinetic (hydraulic) ergometry, interspersed with rest intervals, or continuance with usual care (CON, n=20), after which they underwent repeat endpoint testing. Combining all 4 movement patterns, strength increased for EX by 21+/-30% (mean+/-SD, P<.01) after training, whereas endurance improved 21+/-21% (P<.01). Corresponding data for CON remained almost unchanged (strength P<.005, endurance P<.003 EX versus CON). VO(2peak) improved in EX by 11+/-15% (P<.01), whereas it decreased by 10+/-18% (P<.05) in CON (P<.001 EX versus CON). The ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency spectral power fell after resistance training in EX by 44+/-53% (P<.01), but was unchanged in CON (P<.05 EX versus CON). FBF increased at rest by 20+/-32% (P<.01), and when stimulated by submaximal exercise (24+/-32%, P<.01) or limb ischemia (26+/-45%, P<.01) in EX, but not in CON (P<.01 EX versus CON). Moderate-intensity resistance exercise training in CHF patients produced favorable changes to skeletal muscle strength and endurance, VO(2peak), FBF, and HRV.
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              Canine degenerative myxomatous mitral valve disease: natural history, clinical presentation and therapy.

              Myxomatous mitral valve disease is a common condition in geriatric dogs. Most dogs affected are clinically asymptomatic for a long time. However, about 30% of these animals present a progression to heart failure and eventually die as a consequence of the disease. Left atrial enlargement, and particularly a change in left atrial size, seems to be the most reliable predictor of progression in some studies, however further studies are needed to clarify how to recognize asymptomatic patients at higher risk of developing heart failure. According to the published data on the natural history of the disease and the results of published studies evaluating the effect of early therapy on delaying the progression of the disease, it seems that no currently available treatment delays the onset of clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF). Although the ideal treatment of more severely affected dogs is probably surgical mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement, this is not a currently available option. The results of several clinical trials together with clinical experience suggest that dogs with overt CHF can be managed with acceptable quality of life for a relatively long time period with medical treatment including furosemide, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, pimobendan, and spironolactone.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                abmvz
                Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
                Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
                Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil )
                1678-4162
                April 2017
                : 69
                : 2
                : 325-332
                Affiliations
                Uruguaiana Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Pampa Brazil
                Uruguaiana Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Pampa Brazil
                Article
                S0102-09352017000200325
                10.1590/1678-4162-9230

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 8
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