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      An in vivo rat model for early development of colorectal cancer metastasis to liver : In vivo model for colorectal cancer liver metastasis

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          Abstract

          At diagnosis of colorectal cancer, approximately 25% of the patients have established colorectal liver metastasis. Optimal management of disseminated disease requires therapies targeting multiple stages in hepatic colorectal cancer metastasis development. To facilitate this, biologically accurate in vivo models are required. Early colonic cancer liver metastases development was studied using BDIX and Sprague-Dawley rat strains with human HT29 and rat DHDK12 colonic cancer cell lines. Different cancer cell-host combinations were used. Rat DHDK12 was previously chemically induced in the BDIX rat. Real-time intra-vital microscopy was employed to analyse the early development of liver metastases in four groups (n = 6 per group) (HT29-BDIX, DHDK12-BDIX, HT29-SD and DHDK12-SD). Data were compared using one-way anova with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. The total number of tumour cells visualized, adherent cells within the hepatic sinusoids, extravasated tumour cells and migration rates were significantly higher in the DHDK12-BDIX combination. Maximum number of visualized cells and maximum migration rate were also significantly higher in this group. No significant differences were observed in these experimental parameters among the other three groups or in the haemodynamic parameters among all groups. In conclusion, cancer cell line-host selection has a significant effect on early colonic cancer liver metastasis development.

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          Most cited references26

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          In vivo imaging of tumors with protease-activated near-infrared fluorescent probes.

          We have developed a method to image tumor-associated lysosomal protease activity in a xenograft mouse model in vivo using autoquenched near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probes. NIRF probes were bound to a long circulating graft copolymer consisting of poly-L-lysine and methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate. Following intravenous injection, the NIRF probe carrier accumulated in solid tumors due to its long circulation time and leakage through tumor neovasculature. Intratumoral NIRF signal was generated by lysosomal proteases in tumor cells that cleave the macromolecule, thereby releasing previously quenched fluorochrome. In vivo imaging showed a 12-fold increase in NIRF signal, allowing the detection of tumors with submillimeter-sized diameters. This strategy can be used to detect such early stage tumors in vivo and to probe for specific enzyme activity.
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            Intravascular origin of metastasis from the proliferation of endothelium-attached tumor cells: a new model for metastasis.

            Metastasis is a frequent complication of cancer, yet the process through which circulating tumor cells form distant colonies is poorly understood. We have been able to observe the steps in early hematogenous metastasis by epifluorescence microscopy of tumor cells expressing green fluorescent protein in subpleural microvessels in intact, perfused mouse and rat lungs. Metastatic tumor cells attached to the endothelia of pulmonary pre-capillary arterioles and capillaries. Extravasation of tumor cells was rare, and it seemed that the transmigrated cells were cleared quickly by the lung, leaving only the endothelium-attached cells as the seeds of secondary tumors. Early colonies were entirely within the blood vessels. Although most models of metastasis include an extravasation step early in the process, here we show that in the lung, metastasis is initiated by attachment of tumor cells to the vascular endothelium and that hematogenous metastasis originates from the proliferation of attached intravascular tumor cells rather than from extravasated ones. Intravascular metastasis formation would make early colonies especially vulnerable to intravascular drugs, and this possibility has potential for the prevention of tumor cell attachment to the endothelium.
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              Smad3 mutant mice develop metastatic colorectal cancer.

              TGFbeta-related growth factors have been implicated in a variety of developmental and physiological processes in organisms ranging from nematodes to mammals. TGFbeta transduces its signal to the interior of the cell via Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4. We report the cloning and targeted disruption of the mouse Smad3 gene. Smad3 mutant mice are viable and fertile. Between 4 and 6 months of age, the Smad3 mutant mice become moribund with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The neoplasms penetrate through the intestinal wall and metastasize to lymph nodes. These results directly implicate TGFbeta signaling in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and provide a compelling animal model for the study of human colorectal cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Experimental Pathology
                Wiley
                09599673
                December 2008
                November 05 2008
                : 89
                : 6
                : 447-457
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2613.2008.00605.x
                2669606
                19134054
                296d07f9-b328-4aae-8bc6-153570c36bd0
                © 2008

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