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      Demystification of AI-driven medical image interpretation: past, present and future

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          Most cited references 12

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          Multi-atlas segmentation of biomedical images: A survey.

          Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS), first introduced and popularized by the pioneering work of Rohlfing, et al. (2004), Klein, et al. (2005), and Heckemann, et al. (2006), is becoming one of the most widely-used and successful image segmentation techniques in biomedical applications. By manipulating and utilizing the entire dataset of "atlases" (training images that have been previously labeled, e.g., manually by an expert), rather than some model-based average representation, MAS has the flexibility to better capture anatomical variation, thus offering superior segmentation accuracy. This benefit, however, typically comes at a high computational cost. Recent advancements in computer hardware and image processing software have been instrumental in addressing this challenge and facilitated the wide adoption of MAS. Today, MAS has come a long way and the approach includes a wide array of sophisticated algorithms that employ ideas from machine learning, probabilistic modeling, optimization, and computer vision, among other fields. This paper presents a survey of published MAS algorithms and studies that have applied these methods to various biomedical problems. In writing this survey, we have three distinct aims. Our primary goal is to document how MAS was originally conceived, later evolved, and now relates to alternative methods. Second, this paper is intended to be a detailed reference of past research activity in MAS, which now spans over a decade (2003-2014) and entails novel methodological developments and application-specific solutions. Finally, our goal is to also present a perspective on the future of MAS, which, we believe, will be one of the dominant approaches in biomedical image segmentation.
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            Automated segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions by model outlier detection.

            This paper presents a fully automated algorithm for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions from multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method performs intensity-based tissue classification using a stochastic model for normal brain images and simultaneously detects MS lesions as outliers that are not well explained by the model. It corrects for MR field inhomogeneities, estimates tissue-specific intensity models from the data itself, and incorporates contextual information in the classification using a Markov random field. The results of the automated method are compared with lesion delineations by human experts, showing a high total lesion load correlation. When the degree of spatial correspondence between segmentations is taken into account, considerable disagreement is found, both between expert segmentations, and between expert and automatic measurements.
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              A survey of medical image registration - under review.

              A retrospective view on the past two decades of the field of medical image registration is presented, guided by the article "A survey of medical image registration" (Maintz and Viergever, 1998). It shows that the classification of the field introduced in that article is still usable, although some modifications to do justice to advances in the field would be due. The main changes over the last twenty years are the shift from extrinsic to intrinsic registration, the primacy of intensity-based registration, the breakthrough of nonlinear registration, the progress of inter-subject registration, and the availability of generic image registration software packages. Two problems that were called urgent already 20 years ago, are even more urgent nowadays: Validation of registration methods, and translation of results of image registration research to clinical practice. It may be concluded that the field of medical image registration has evolved, but still is in need of further development in various aspects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Radiology
                Eur Radiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0938-7994
                1432-1084
                March 2019
                August 13 2018
                March 2019
                : 29
                : 3
                : 1616-1624
                Article
                10.1007/s00330-018-5674-x
                © 2019

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