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      Baseline cardiac magnetic resonance imaging versus baseline endomyocardial biopsy for the prediction of left ventricular reverse remodeling and prognosis in response to therapy in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

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          Abstract

          Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging performed at baseline are both used to evaluate the extent of myocardial fibrosis. However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of these diagnostic tools in the prediction of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) and prognosis in response to therapy in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Seventy-five patients with newly diagnosed IDCM who were undergoing optimal therapy were assessed at baseline using LGE-CMR imaging and EMB; the former measured LGE area and the latter measured collagen volume fraction (CVF) as possible predictive indices of LVRR and cardiac event-free survival. Among all the baseline primary candidate factors with P < 0.2 as per univariate analysis, multivariate analysis indicated that only LGE area was an independent predictor of subsequent LVRR ( β = 0.44; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.87–2.53; P < 0.001), as indicated by decreasing left ventricular end-systolic volume index over the 1-year follow-up. Kaplan–Meier curves indicated significantly lower cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with LGE at baseline than in patients without ( P < 0.01). By contrast, there was no significant difference in prognosis between patients with CVF values above (severe fibrosis) and below (mild fibrosis) the median of 4.9 %. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that LGE area was an independent predictor of subsequent cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.06; 95 % CI 1.02–1.10; P ≤ 0.01). The degree of myocardial fibrosis estimated by baseline LGE-CMR imaging, but not that estimated by baseline EMB, can predict LVRR and cardiac event-free survival in response to therapy in patients with newly diagnosed IDCM.

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          Most cited references28

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          Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, fibrosis, and prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy.

          We studied the prognostic implications of midwall fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in a prospective longitudinal study. Risk stratification of patients with nonischemic DCM in the era of device implantation is problematic. Approximately 30% of patients with DCM have midwall fibrosis as detected by late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), which may increase susceptibility to arrhythmia and progression of heart failure. Consecutive DCM patients (n = 101) with the presence or absence of midwall fibrosis were followed up prospectively for 658 +/- 355 days for events. Midwall fibrosis was present in 35% of patients and was associated with a higher rate of the predefined primary combined end point of all-cause death and hospitalization for a cardiovascular event (hazard ratio 3.4, p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed midwall fibrosis as the sole significant predictor of death or hospitalization. However, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the 2 groups. Midwall fibrosis also predicted secondary outcome measures of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) (hazard ratio 5.2, p = 0.03). Midwall fibrosis remained predictive of SCD/VT after correction for baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction between the 2 groups. In DCM, midwall fibrosis determined by CMR is a predictor of the combined end point of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, which is independent of ventricular remodeling. In addition, midwall fibrosis by CMR predicts SCD/VT. This suggests a potential role for CMR in the risk stratification of patients with DCM, which may have value in determining the need for device therapy.
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            Prevalence and prognostic significance of left ventricular reverse remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy receiving tailored medical treatment.

            The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic role of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM).
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              Late gadolinium enhancement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance heralds an adverse prognosis in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

              We examined whether the presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predict adverse outcomes in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients. Morbidity and mortality is high in NICM patients. However, the clinical course of an individual patient is unpredictable and current risk stratification approaches are limited. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance detects myocardial fibrosis, which appears as LGE after contrast administration and may convey prognostic importance. In a prospective cohort study, 65 NICM patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction < or =35% underwent CMR before placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The CMR images were analyzed for the presence and extent of LGE and for LV function, volumes, and mass. Patients were followed for an index composite end point of 3 cardiac events: hospitalization for heart failure, appropriate ICD firing, and cardiac death. A total of 42% (n = 27) of patients had CMR LGE, averaging 10 +/- 13% of LV mass. During a 17-month median follow-up, 44% (n = 12) of patients with LGE had an index composite outcome event versus only 8% (n = 3) of those without LGE (p < 0.001 for Kaplan-Meier survival curves). After adjustment for LV volume index and functional class, patients with LGE had an 8-fold higher risk of experiencing the primary outcome (hazard ratio 8.2, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 30.9; p = 0.002). A CMR LGE in NICM patients strongly predicts adverse cardiac outcomes. The CMR LGE may represent the end-organ consequences of sustained adrenergic activation and adverse LV remodeling, and its identification may significantly improve risk stratification strategies in this high risk population. (Imaging Techniques for Identifying Factors of Sudden Cardiac Death Risk; NCT00181233).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +81-42-7788111 , +81-42-7788441 , srfaimx@yahoo.co.jp
                Journal
                Heart Vessels
                Heart Vessels
                Heart and Vessels
                Springer Japan (Tokyo )
                0910-8327
                1615-2573
                4 October 2013
                4 October 2013
                2014
                : 29
                : 6
                : 784-792
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Cardio-angiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-Ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374 Japan
                [ ]Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan
                Article
                415
                10.1007/s00380-013-0415-1
                4226927
                24092362
                29749ba8-c213-44d7-ab4c-f01f5ccc949b
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                History
                : 1 June 2013
                : 13 September 2013
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Japan 2014

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                fibrosis,magnetic resonance imaging,biopsy,dilated cardiomyopathy
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                fibrosis, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy, dilated cardiomyopathy

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