The rapid and reliable identification of arthropod vector species is an essential component of the fight against vector-borne diseases. However, owing to the lack of entomological expertise required for the morphological identification method, development of alternative and complementary tools is needed. This review describes the main methods used for arthropod identification, focusing on the emergence of protein profiling using MALDI-TOF MS technology. Sample preparation, analysis of reproducibility, database creation and blind tests for controlling accuracy of this tool for arthropod identification are described. The advantages and limitations of the MALDI-TOF MS method are illustrated by emphasizing different hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes and ticks, the top two main vectors of infectious diseases.