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      Human-biting activities of Anopheles species in south-central Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the key malaria vector control interventions in Ethiopia. The success of these interventions rely on their efficacy to repel or kill indoor feeding and resting mosquitoes. This study was undertaken to monitor human-biting patterns of Anopheles species in south-central Ethiopia.

          Methods

          Human-biting patterns of anophelines were monitored for 40 nights in three houses using human landing catches (HLC) both indoors and outdoors between July and November 2014, in Edo Kontola village, south-central Ethiopia. This time coincides with the major malaria transmission season in Ethiopia, which is usually between September and November. Adult mosquitoes were collected from 19:00 to 06:00 h and identified to species. Comparisons of HLC data were done using incidence rate ratio (IRR) calculated by negative binomial regression. The nocturnal biting activities of each Anopheles species was expressed as mean number of mosquitoes landing per person per hour. To assess malaria infections in Anopheles mosquitoes the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

          Results

          Altogether 3,408 adult female anophelines were collected, 2,610 (76.6 %) outdoors and 798 (23.4 %) indoors. Anopheles zeimanni was the predominant species (66.5 %) followed by An. arabiensis (24.8 %), An. pharoensis (6.8 %) and An. funestus ( s.l.) (1.8 %).

          The overall mean anopheline density was 3.3 times higher outdoors than indoors (65.3 vs 19.9/person/night, IRR: 3.3, 95 % CI: 1.1–5.1, P = 0.001). The mean density of An. zeimanni, An. pharoensis and An. funestus ( s.l.) collected outdoors was significantly higher than indoors for each species ( P < 0.05). However, the mean An. arabiensis density outdoors was similar to that indoors (11.8 vs 9.4/person/night, IRR: 1.3, 95 % CI: 0.8–1.9, P = 0.335). The mean hourly human-biting density of An. arabiensis was greater outdoors than indoors and peaked between 21:00 and 22:00 h. However, An. arabiensis parous population showed high indoor man biting activities during bedtimes (22:00 to 05:00 h) when the local people were indoor and potentially protected by IRS and LLINs. All mosquito samples tested for CSP antigen were found negative to malaria parasites.

          Conclusions

          Results show much greater mosquito human-biting activities occurring outdoors than indoors and during early parts of the night, implying higher outdoor malaria transmission potential in the area. However, high bedtime (22:00 to 05:00 h) indoor biting activities of parous An. arabiensis suggest high potential intervention impact of IRS and LLINs on indoor malaria transmission.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

          Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997), and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004) and then 47% use of ITNs (2009)-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018). At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054) as well as the proportion biting indoors (p < 0.0001). At this time, An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error) of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night) occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143) and from 1.00 ± <0.001 to only 0.50 ± 0.048 for the An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004) over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control tools which target outdoor biting mosquitoes at the adult or immature stages are required to complement ITNs and IRS.
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            Changes in Anopheles funestus biting behavior following universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Benin.

            Behavioral modification of malaria vectors in response to vector control methods is of great concern. We investigated whether full coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs) may induce a switch in biting behavior in Anopheles funestus, a major malaria vector in Africa. Human-landing collections were conducted indoor and outdoor in 2 villages (Lokohouè and Tokoli) in Benin before and 1 year and 3 years after implementation of universal LLIN coverage. Proportion of outdoor biting (POB) and median catching times (MCT) were compared. The resistance of A. funestus to deltamethrin was monitored using bioassays. MCT of A. funestus switched from 2 AM in Lokohoué and 3 AM in Tokoli to 5 AM after 3 years (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .0001). In Tokoli, POB increased from 45% to 68.1% (odds ratio = 2.55; 95 confidence interval = 1.72-3.78; P < .0001) 1 year after the universal coverage, whereas POB was unchanged in Lokohoué. In Lokohoué, however, the proportion of A. funestus that bites after 6 am was 26%. Bioassays showed no resistance to deltamethrin. This study provides evidence for a switch in malaria vectors' biting behavior after the implementation of LLIN at universal coverage. These findings might have direct consequences for malaria control in Africa and highlighted the need for alternative strategies for better targeting malaria vectors.
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              Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

              Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                qabanef2015@gmail.com
                meshesha_b@yahoo.com
                habte_tm@yahoo.com
                teshomegm@gmail.com
                deressaw@gmail.com
                eskindir_loha@yahoo.com
                bernt.lindtjorn@cih.uib.no
                hans.overgaard@nmbu.no
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                30 September 2016
                30 September 2016
                2016
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Zoological Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Akililu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [4 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [5 ]School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
                [6 ]Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
                [7 ]Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
                [8 ]Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies InfectieusesetVecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution etContrôle (MIVEGEC), Montpellier, France
                [9 ]Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
                Article
                1813
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Research Council of Norway
                Award ID: 220554
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2016

                Parasitology

                malaria, anopheles arabiensis, endophagy, exophagy, ethiopia

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