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      The time-course of single-word reading: Evidence from fast behavioral and brain responses

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          Abstract

          We usually feel that we understand a familiar word “immediately”. However, even basic aspects of the time-line of word recognition are still controversial. Different domains of research have still not converged on a coherent account. An integration of multiple sources of information would lead to more strongly constrained theoretical models, and help finding optimal measures when monitoring specific aspects of word recognition impairments in patient groups. In our multimodal approach – combining fast behavioral measures, ERPs and EEG/MEG source estimation – we provide converging evidence for the latencies of earliest lexical and semantic information retrieval in visual word recognition. Participants performed lexical and semantic decisions (LD, SD) in a Go/NoGo paradigm. We introduced eye-blink latencies as a dependent variable, in order to measure behavioral responses that are faster and less variable than traditional button presses. We found that the earliest behavioral responses distinguishing stimulus categories can occur around 310 ms. Ex-Gaussian analysis of behavioral responses did not reveal reliable differences between LD and SD. The earliest ERP differences between Go and NoGo conditions occurred around 160 ms for both LD and SD. Distributed source analysis of combined EEG/MEG data estimated neuronal generators for the lexicality effect around 200 ms in the left anterior middle temporal lobe. Thus, behavior and brain responses provide coherent evidence that the brain starts retrieving lexical and semantic information near-simultaneously within 200 ms of word onset. Our results support models of word recognition that assume a continuous accumulation of task-related information from the stimulus, which might be described by Bayesian principles.

          Highlights

          ► Behavioral eye blink responses distinguish word categories around 310 ms. ► ERP responses distinguish lexical and semantic word categories around 160 ms. ► Lexical and semantic word information are retrieved early and near-simultaneously. ► Lexicality effects around 200 ms are localized to the left mid-temporal lobe.

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          Most cited references 105

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          The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory

           R.C. Oldfield (1971)
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            Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction.

            Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic two-dimensional structure of the cortical surface. In order to study such cortical properties in humans, it is necessary to obtain an accurate and explicit representation of the cortical surface in individual subjects. Here we describe a set of automated procedures for obtaining accurate reconstructions of the cortical surface, which have been applied to data from more than 100 subjects, requiring little or no manual intervention. Automated routines for unfolding and flattening the cortical surface are described in a companion paper. These procedures allow for the routine use of cortical surface-based analysis and visualization methods in functional brain imaging. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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              Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system.

              The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the cortical surface to (i) inflate it so that activity buried inside sulci may be visualized, (ii) cut and flatten an entire hemisphere, and (iii) transform a hemisphere into a simple parameterizable surface such as a sphere for the purpose of establishing a surface-based coordinate system. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuroimage
                Neuroimage
                Neuroimage
                Academic Press
                1053-8119
                1095-9572
                02 April 2012
                02 April 2012
                : 60
                : 2-2
                : 1462-1477
                Affiliations
                [a ]MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
                [b ]Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: MRC-CBU, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 7EF, UK. Fax: + 44 1223 359062. olaf.hauk@ 123456mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk
                Article
                YNIMG9126
                10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.061
                3382728
                22281671
                © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

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