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      Loss-of-function mutations in PTPRJ cause a new form of inherited thrombocytopenia

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          Abstract

          Inherited thrombocytopenias (ITs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by low platelet count that may result in bleeding tendency. Despite progress being made in defining the genetic causes of ITs, nearly 50% of patients with familial thrombocytopenia are affected with forms of unknown origin. Here, through exome sequencing of 2 siblings with autosomal-recessive thrombocytopenia, we identified biallelic loss-of-function variants in PTPRJ. This gene encodes for a receptor-like PTP, PTPRJ (or CD148), which is expressed abundantly in platelets and megakaryocytes. Consistent with the predicted effects of the variants, both probands have an almost complete loss of PTPRJ at the messenger RNA and protein levels. To investigate the pathogenic role of PTPRJ deficiency in hematopoiesis in vivo, we carried out CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation of ptprja (the ortholog of human PTPRJ) in zebrafish, which induced a significantly decreased number of CD41+ thrombocytes in vivo. Moreover, megakaryocytes of our patients showed impaired maturation and profound defects in SDF1-driven migration and formation of proplatelets in vitro. Silencing of PTPRJ in a human megakaryocytic cell line reproduced the functional defects observed in patients' megakaryocytes. The disorder caused by PTPRJ mutations presented as a nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia characterized by spontaneous bleeding, small-sized platelets, and impaired platelet responses to the GPVI agonists collagen and convulxin. These platelet functional defects could be attributed to reduced activation of Src family kinases. Taken together, our data identify a new form of IT and highlight a hitherto unknown fundamental role for PTPRJ in platelet biogenesis.

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          Most cited references 43

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          The first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of human platelet protein composition allows the comparative analysis of structural and functional pathways.

          Antiplatelet treatment is of fundamental importance in combatting functions/dysfunction of platelets in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Dysfunction of anucleate platelets is likely to be completely attributable to alterations in posttranslational modifications and protein expression. We therefore examined the proteome of platelets highly purified from fresh blood donations, using elaborate protocols to ensure negligible contamination by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and plasma. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we created the first comprehensive and quantitative human platelet proteome, comprising almost 4000 unique proteins, estimated copy numbers for ∼ 3700 of those, and assessed intersubject (4 donors) as well as intrasubject (3 different blood samples from 1 donor) variations of the proteome. For the first time, our data allow for a systematic and weighted appraisal of protein networks and pathways in human platelets, and indicate the feasibility of differential and comprehensive proteome analyses from small blood donations. Because 85% of the platelet proteome shows no variation between healthy donors, this study represents the starting point for disease-oriented platelet proteomics. In the near future, comprehensive and quantitative comparisons between normal and well-defined dysfunctional platelets, or between platelets obtained from donors at various stages of chronic cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases will be feasible.
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            Chemokine-mediated interaction of hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche is required for thrombopoiesis.

            The molecular pathways involved in the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors are unknown. Here we report that chemokine-mediated interactions of megakaryocyte progenitors with sinusoidal bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) promote thrombopoietin (TPO)-independent platelet production. Megakaryocyte-active cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-11, did not induce platelet production in thrombocytopenic, TPO-deficient (Thpo(-/-)) or TPO receptor-deficient (Mpl(-/-)) mice. In contrast, megakaryocyte-active chemokines, including stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4), restored thrombopoiesis in Thpo(-/-) and Mpl(-/-) mice. FGF-4 and SDF-1 enhanced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)- and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4)-mediated localization of CXCR4(+) megakaryocyte progenitors to the vascular niche, promoting survival, maturation and platelet release. Disruption of the vascular niche or interference with megakaryocyte motility inhibited thrombopoiesis under physiological conditions and after myelosuppression. SDF-1 and FGF-4 diminished thrombocytopenia after myelosuppression. These data suggest that TPO supports progenitor cell expansion, whereas chemokine-mediated interaction of progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche allows the progenitors to relocate to a microenvironment that is permissive and instructive for megakaryocyte maturation and thrombopoiesis. Progenitor-active chemokines offer a new strategy to restore hematopoiesis in a clinical setting.
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              Analysis of thrombocyte development in CD41-GFP transgenic zebrafish.

              Thrombocytes are the nucleated equivalent of platelets in nonmammalian vertebrates such as the zebrafish, Danio rerio. We have cloned zebrafish CD41 cDNA (alpha(IIb), glycoprotein IIb [GPIIb]) and its promoter and have generated transgenic zebrafish lines with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged thrombocytes. CD41 mRNA transcripts appeared 42 hours after fertilization (hpf) by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at 48 hpf in circulating hematopoietic cells. Flow sorting of thrombocytes from the mesonephros of adult CD41-GFP zebrafish showed a GFP(high) subset, which had the morphologic appearance of mature thrombocytes, and a GFP(low) subset with an immature appearance, suggesting that they may be thrombocyte precursors. Confocal laser microscopy of embryos 40 and 48 hpf also showed a nonmobile population of GFP+ cells in a discrete area between the dorsal aorta and caudal vein. Production of circulating thrombocytes was inhibited by the injection of antisense morpholinos for the stem-cell transcription factor scl and c-mpl, the receptor for thrombopoietin. The nonmobile pool of GFP+ cells was abolished by scl knockdown and partially inhibited by c-mpl knockdown. These studies have shown that it is possible to identify thrombocytes, thrombocyte precursors, and, possibly, early hematopoietic stem cells in zebrafish embryos and track their proliferation and maturation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood
                Blood
                American Society of Hematology
                0006-4971
                1528-0020
                March 21 2019
                March 21 2019
                March 21 2019
                December 27 2018
                : 133
                : 12
                : 1346-1357
                Article
                10.1182/blood-2018-07-859496
                30591527
                © 2018

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