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      Spatial robust fuzzy clustering of COVID 19 time series based on B-splines

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          Abstract

          The aim of the work is to identify a clustering structure for the 20 Italian regions according to the main variables related to COVID-19 pandemic. Data are observed over time, spanning from the last week of February 2020 to the first week of February 2021. Dealing with geographical units observed at several time occasions, the proposed fuzzy clustering model embedded both space and time information. Properly, an Exponential distance-based Fuzzy Partitioning Around Medoids algorithm with spatial penalty term has been proposed to classify the spline representation of the time trajectories. The results show that the heterogeneity among regions along with the spatial contiguity is essential to understand the spread of the pandemic and to design effective policies to mitigate the effects.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia

           Qun Li,  Xuhua Guan,  Peng Wu (2020)
          Abstract Background The initial cases of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and January 2020. We analyzed data on the first 425 confirmed cases in Wuhan to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of NCIP. Methods We collected information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of laboratory-confirmed cases of NCIP that had been reported by January 22, 2020. We described characteristics of the cases and estimated the key epidemiologic time-delay distributions. In the early period of exponential growth, we estimated the epidemic doubling time and the basic reproductive number. Results Among the first 425 patients with confirmed NCIP, the median age was 59 years and 56% were male. The majority of cases (55%) with onset before January 1, 2020, were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, as compared with 8.6% of the subsequent cases. The mean incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 7.0), with the 95th percentile of the distribution at 12.5 days. In its early stages, the epidemic doubled in size every 7.4 days. With a mean serial interval of 7.5 days (95% CI, 5.3 to 19), the basic reproductive number was estimated to be 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9). Conclusions On the basis of this information, there is evidence that human-to-human transmission has occurred among close contacts since the middle of December 2019. Considerable efforts to reduce transmission will be required to control outbreaks if similar dynamics apply elsewhere. Measures to prevent or reduce transmission should be implemented in populations at risk. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and others.)
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            ST-DBSCAN: An algorithm for clustering spatial–temporal data

             Derya Birant,  Alp Kut (2007)
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              Fuzzy C-means method for clustering microarray data.

              Clustering analysis of data from DNA microarray hybridization studies is essential for identifying biologically relevant groups of genes. Partitional clustering methods such as K-means or self-organizing maps assign each gene to a single cluster. However, these methods do not provide information about the influence of a given gene for the overall shape of clusters. Here we apply a fuzzy partitioning method, Fuzzy C-means (FCM), to attribute cluster membership values to genes. A major problem in applying the FCM method for clustering microarray data is the choice of the fuzziness parameter m. We show that the commonly used value m = 2 is not appropriate for some data sets, and that optimal values for m vary widely from one data set to another. We propose an empirical method, based on the distribution of distances between genes in a given data set, to determine an adequate value for m. By setting threshold levels for the membership values, genes which are tigthly associated to a given cluster can be selected. Using a yeast cell cycle data set as an example, we show that this selection increases the overall biological significance of the genes within the cluster. Supplementary text and Matlab functions are available at http://www-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/fcm/
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Spat Stat
                Spat Stat
                Spatial Statistics
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                2211-6753
                15 May 2021
                15 May 2021
                Affiliations
                [a ]Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali ed Economiche, Sapienza University of Rome, P.za Aldo Moro, 5 00185 Rome, Italy
                [b ]Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche, LUISS university, Viale Romania, 32 00197 Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2211-6753(21)00028-2 100518
                10.1016/j.spasta.2021.100518
                8123527
                © 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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